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Advanced Fermentation and Cell Technology
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Table of Contents

Preface

Overview on Market Size of Bioproducts and Fundamentals of Cell Technology

Biotechnology and global market size of bioproducts

Cellular organization and membrane structure of three domains

Part I

Chapter 1 Microbial Cell Technology

1.1 Basic bacterial growth and mode of fermentation

1.2 Basic fungal growth

1.3 Classical strain improvements and tools

1.3.1 Natural selection and mutation

1.3.2 Recombination

1.4 Modern strain improvement and tools

1.4.1 Genome shuffling

1.4.2 Recombinant DNA technology

Summary

1.4.3 RNA interference (RNAi) and CRISPR)/Cas technology for genome editing

1.4.3.1 RNA interference (RNAi)

1.4.3.2 CRISPR)/Cas technology for genome editing

1.4.4 Molecular thermodynamics for biotechnology

1.4.5 Protein engineering

1.4.6 Genomics, proteomics and bioinformatics

Summary

1.4.7 Systems/synthetic biology and metabolic engineering

Summary

1.4.8 Quorum sensing and quenching

Summary

1.5 Bioengineering and scale-up process

1.5.1 Microbial and process engineering factors affecting performance and economics

1.5.2 Fermenter and bioreactor systems

1.5.3 Mass transfer concept

1.5.4 Heat transfer concept

1.5.5 Mass and heat transfer practice

1.5.6 Scale-up and scale-down of fermentations

1.5.6.1 Scale-up methods

1.5.6.2 Bioinstrumentation and computer control

1.3.6.3 Physical measurement

1.5.6.4 Chemical measurement

1.5.6.5 Biological measurement

1.5.6.6 Computer applications

1.5.6.7 Process control

1.5.6.8 SCADA control system

1.5.7 Scale-up challenges

Summary

1.6New bioprocesses of fermentation

1.6.1 Growth-arrested bioprocess

1.6.2 Integrated bioprocess

1.6.3 Consolidated bioprocessing (CBP)

Summary

Bibliography

Part II

Chapter 2 Applications of Microbial Fermentation to Food Products, Chemicals and Pharmaceuticals

2.1 Fermented dairy products

2.1.1 Basic knowledge of manufacture of dairy products

2.1.2 Genetic engineering of lactic acid bacteria

Summary

Bibliography

2.2 Fermented meat and fish products

2.2.1 Fermented meat products

2.2.2 Fermented fish products

Summary

Bibliography

2.3 Fermented vegetable and cereal products

2.3.1 Fermented vegetable products

2.3.2 Fermented cereal products

Summary

Bibliography

2.4 Organic acids

2.4.1 Acetic acid

2.4.2 Citric acid

2.4.3 Lactic acid

2.4.4 Malic acid

2.4.5 Fumaric acid

Summary

Bibliography

2.5 Flavors and Amino acids

2.5.1 Microbial flavors

2.5.2 Amino acids

2.6 Sweeteners

2.5.1 Nutritive sweeteners

2.5.2 High intensity sweeteners

Summary

Bibliography

2.7 Vitamins and Pigments

2.7.1 Production of vitamins

2.7.2 Production of pigments

Summary

Bibliography

2.8 Microbial polysaccharides and Biopolymers

2.8.1 Microbial polysaccharides

2.8.2 Biopolymers

Summary

Bibliography

2.9 Bacteriocins and Bacteriophages

2.9.1 Bacteriocins

2.9.2 Bacteriophage

Summary

Bibliography

2.10 Enzymes

Summary

Bibliography

2.11 Biomass (SCP) and Mushrooms

2.11.1 Biomass (SCP)

2.11.2 Mushrooms

Summary

Bibliography

2.12 Functional foods and Nutraceuticals

2.12.1 Probiotics and prebiotics

2.12.2 Microbiome

Summary

Bibliography

2.13 Alcoholic beverages

2.13.1 Beer

2.13.2 Wine

Summary

Bibliography

2.14 Other fermentation chemicals

2.14.1 Bioethanol

Summary

Bibliography

2.14.2 Biobutanol

Summary

Bibliography

2.14.3 Biobutanediol

Summary

Bibliography

2.14.4 Biodiesel

Summary

Bibliography

2.14.5 Biomethane

Summary

Bibliography

2.14.6 Biohydrogen

Summary

Bibliography

2.15 Pharmaceuticals, Growth promoters, and Biopesticides

2.15.1 Antibiotics

2.15.2 Antibiotic (or Antimicrobial) growth promoters (AGPs)

Summary

Bibliography

2.15.3 Antitumor drugs

Summary

Bibliography

2.15.4 Steroids

2.15.5 Statins

Summary

Bibliography

2.15.6 Biopesticides

Summary

Bibliography

Part III

3.1 Animal Cell Technology

3.1.1 Introduction

3.1.2 Techniques of RNAi and CRISPR

3.1.3 Animal cell lines

3.1.3.1 Anchorage-dependent (adherent) cells

3.1.3.2 Anchorage-independent (suspension) cells

3.1.4 Upstream and downstream bioprocessing

3.1.5 Strain development of animal cell cultures

3.1.6 Applications of animal cell cultures

3.1.6.1 Monoclonal antibodies (mABs)

3.1.6.2 Vaccines

3.1.6.3 DNA vaccines

3.1.6.4 Reverse vaccinology (RV)

3.1.6.5 Edible vaccines

3.1.6.6 Zika vaccines

3.1.6.7 Hepatitis vaccines

3.1.6.8 HIV vaccines

3.1.7 Transgenic animal bioreactors

3.2.7.1 Introduction and techniques

3.2.7.2 Applications of transgenic animals

Part IV

Chapter 4 Plant Cell Technology

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Plant tissue culture

4.3 Applications of plant tissue culture

4.3.1 Traditional plant breeding (Non-recombinant DNA techniques)

4.3.2 General media for plant tissue culture

4.3.3 Bioreactor types of plant cell cultures

4.3.3.1 Seed based bioreactor

4.3.3.2 Plant cell suspension bioreactor

4.3.3.3 Hairy root bioreactor

4.3.3.4 Chloroplast bioreactors

4.3.4 Modern plant breeding or Biotech/GM crops (Recombinant DNA Techniques)

4.3.4.1 Agricultural applications

Summary

Bibliography

Part V

Chapter 5. Safety Issues of New Biotechnologies on Microbial, Animal, and Plant Cells

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Safety evaluation of novel foods and cell culture products

5.2.1 Genetically Modified Microorganisms and Their Products

5.2.2 Genetically Modified Animal Cell Cultures, Animals, Fishes and Their Products

5.2.2.1 Safety aspects of animal cell culture

5.2.2.2 Genetically modified animals and their products

5.2.2.3 Detection methods of transgenic animals and fishes

5.2.3 Genetically Modified Plants and Their Products

5.2.3.1 Whole GM crops

5.2.3.2 Safety concern of GM crops and cell cultures

5.2.3.3 Safety of GM crops- and GMM derived ingredients

5.3.3.4 Detection methods of GM crops

Summary

Bibliography

Index

About the Author

Byong H. Lee, Scientific Advisor at SportBiomics, CA, USA; Former Distinguished Professor at Kangwon National University (Department of Food Science and Biotechnology), Chuncheon, South Korea; Former Distinguished Professor at Jiangnan University (School of Biotechnology), Wuxi, China; Former Professor (AAFC Chair) and Affiliated Professor at McGill University (Departments of Microbiology/Immunology and Food Science/Agricultural Chemistry) and Principal Research Scientist/Head of Biotechnology at Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Quebec, Canada.

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