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Advanced Sensor and Detection Materials
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Table of Contents

Preface xv

Part 1: Principals and Prospective 1

1 Advances in Sensors? Nanotechnology 3
Ida Tiwari and Manorama Singh

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 What is Nanotechnology? 4

1.3 Significance of Nanotechnology 5

1.4 Synthesis of Nanostructure 5

1.5 Advancements in Sensors' Research Based on Nanotechnology 5

1.6 Use of Nanoparticles 7

1.7 Use of Nanowires and Nanotubes 8

1.8 Use of Porous Silicon 11

1.9 Use of Self-Assembled Nanostructures 12

1.10 Receptor-Ligand Nanoarrays 12

1.11 Characterization of Nanostructures and Nanomaterials 13

1.12 Commercialization Efforts 14

1.13 Future Perspectives 14

References 15

2 Construction of Nanostructures: A Basic Concept Synthesis and Their Applications 19
Rizwan Wahab, Farheen Khan, Nagendra K. Kaushik, Javed Musarrat and Abdulaziz A.Al-Khedhairy

2.1 Introduction 20

2.2 Formation of Zinc Oxide Quantum Dots (ZnO-QDs) and Their Applications 24

2.3 Needle-Shaped Zinc Oxide Nanostructures and Their Growth Mechanism 30

2.4 Flower-Shaped Zinc Oxide Nanostructures and Their Growth Mechanism 37

2.5 Construction of Mixed Shaped Zinc Oxide Nanostructures and Their Growth Mechanicsm 47

2.6 Summary and Future Directions 56

References 57

3 The Role of the Shape in the Design of New Nanoparticles 61
G. Mayeli Estrada-Villegas and Emilio Bucio

3.1 Introduction 62

3.2 The Importance of Shape as Nanocarries 63

3.3 Influence of Shape on Biological Process 65

3.4 Different Shapes of Polymeric Nanoparticles 67

3.5 Different Shapes of Non-Polymeric Nanoparticles 71

3.6 Different Shapes of Polymeric Nanoparticles: Examples 74

3.7 Another Type of Nanoparticles 76

Acknowledgments 80

References 80

4 Molecularly Imprinted Polymer as Advanced Material for Development of Enantioselective Sensing Devices 87
Mahavir Prasad Tiwari and Bhim Bali Prasad

4.1 Introduction 88

4.2 Molecularly Imprinted Chiral Polymers 90

4.3 MIP-Based Chiral Sensing Devices 91

4.4 Conclusion 105

References 105

5 Role of Microwave Sintering in the Preparation of Ferrites for High Frequency Applications 111
S. Bharadwaj and S.R. Murthy

5.1 Microwaves in General 112

5.2 Microwave-Material Interactions 114

5.3 Microwave Sintering 115

5.4 Microwave Equipment 118

5.5 Kitchen Microwave Oven Basic Principle 122

5.6 Microwave Sintering of Ferrites 126

5.7 Microwave Sintering of Garnets 137

5.8 Microwave Sintering of Nanocomposites 138

References 140

Part 2: New Materials and Methods 147

6 Mesoporous Silica: Making "Sense" of Sensors 149
Surender Duhan and Vijay K. Tomer

6.1 Introduction to Sensors 150

6.2 Fundamentals of Humidity Sensors 153

6.3 Types of Humidity Sensors 154

6.4 Humidity Sensing Materials 156

6.5 Issues with Traditional Materials in Sensing Technology 158

6.6 Introduction to Mesoporous Silica 159

6.7 M41S Materials 160

6.8 SBA Materials 162

6.9 Structure of SBA-15 164

6.10 Structure Directing Agents of SBA-15 165

6.11 Factors Affecting Structural Properties and Morphology of SBA-15 169

6.12 Modification of Mesoporous Silica 174

6.13 Characterization Techniques for Mesoporous Materials 177

6.14 Humidity Sensing of SBA-15 184

6.15 Extended Family of Mesoporous Silica 185

6.16 Other Applications of SBA-15 188

6.17 Conclusion 190

References 191

7 Towards Improving the Functionalities of Porous TiO2-Au/Ag Based Materials 193
Monica Baia, Virginia Danciu, Zsolt Pap and Lucian Baia

7.1 Porous Nanostructures Based on Tio2 and Au/Ag Nanoparticles for Environmental Applications 194

7.2 Morphological Particularities of the TiO2-based Aerogels 199

7.3 Designing the TiO2 Porous Nano-architectures for Multiple Applications 201

7.4 Evaluating the Photocatalytic Performances of the TiO2-Au/Ag Porous Nanocomposites for Destroying Water Chemical Pollutants 208

7.5 Testing the Effectiveness of the TiO2-Au/Ag Porous Nanocomposites for Sensing Water Chemical Pollutants by SERS 210

7.6 In-depth Investigations of the Most Efficient Multifunctional TiO2-Au/Ag Porous Nanocomposites 216

7.7 Conclusions 221

Acknowledgments 223

References 223

8 Ferroelectric Glass-Ceramics 229
Viswanathan Kumar

8.1 Introduction 230

8.2 (Ba1-xSrx)TiO3 [BST] Glass-Ceramics 232

8.3 Glass-Ceramic System (1-y) BST: y (B2O3: x SiO2) 234

8.4 Glass-Ceramic System (1-y) BST: y (BaO: Al2O3: 2SiO2) 245

8.5 Comparision of the Two BST Glass-Ceramic Systems 254

8.6 Pb(ZrxTi1-x)TiO3[PZT] Glass-Ceramics 256

References 263

9 NASICON: Synthesis, Structure and Electrical Characterization 265
Umaru Ahmadu

9.1 Introduction 265

9.2 Theretical Survey of Superionic Conduction 268

9.3 NASICON Synthesis 271

9.4 NASICON Structure and Properties 273

9.5 Characterization Techniques 278

9.6 Experimental Results 291

9.7 Problems, Applications, and Prospects 299

9.8 Conclusion 300

Acknowledgments 300

References 300

10 Ionic Liquids 309
Arnab De, Manika Dewan and Subho Mozumdar

10.1 Ionic Liquids: What Are They? 309

10.2 Historical Background 310

10.3 Classification of Ionic Liquids 311

10.4 Properties of Ionic Liquids, Physical and Chemical 314

10.5 Synthesis Methods of Ionic Liquids 323

10.6 Characterization of Ionic Liquids 329

10.7 Major Applications of ILs 330

10.8 ILs in Organic Transformations 331

10.9 ILs for Synthesis and Stabilization of Metal Nanoparticles 339

10.10 Challenges with Ionic Liquids 344

References 346

11 Dendrimers and Hyperbranched Polymers 369
Jyotishmoy Borah and Niranjan Karak

11.1 Introduction 369

11.2 Synthesis of Dendritic Polymers 372

11.3 Characterization 385

11.4 Properties 391

11.5 Applications 398

11.6 Conclusion 403

References 404

Part 3: Advanced Structures and Properties 413

12 Theoretical Investigation of Superconducting State Parameters of Bulk Metallic Glasses 415
Aditya M. Vora

12.1 Introduction 415

12.2 Computational Methodology 417

12.3 Results and Discussion 421

12.4 Conclusions 434

References 434

13 Macroscopic Polarization and Thermal Conductivity of Binary Wurtzite Nitrides 439
Bijaya Kumar Sahoo

13.1 Introduction 440

13.2 The Macroscopic Polarization 441

13.3 Effective Elastic Constant, C44 442

13.4 Group Velocity of Phonons 443

13.5 Phonon Scattering Rates 444

13.6 Thermal Conductivity of InN 445

13.7 Summary 449

References 450

14 Experimental and Theoretical Background to Study Materials 453
Arnab De, Manika Dewan and Subho Mozumdar

14.1 Quasi-Elastic Light Scattering (Photon Correlation Spectroscopy) 453

14.2 Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) 456

14.3 Scanning Electron Microscopy [2] 457

14.4 X-ray Diffraction (XRD) 459

14.5 UV-visible Spectroscopy 461

14.6 FT-IR Spectroscopy 462

14.7 NMR Spectroscopy 463

14.8 Mass Spectrometry 464

14.9 Vibrating Sample Magnetometer 465

References 466

15 Graphene and Its Nanocomposites for Gas Sensing Applications 467
Parveen Saini, Tapas Kuila, Sanjit Saha and Naresh Chandra Murmu

15.1 Introduction 468

15.2 Principles of Chemical Sensing by Conducting Nanocomposite Materials 470

15.3 Synthesis of Graphene and Its Nanocomposites 472

15.4 Characterization of Graphene and Its Nanocomposites 473

15.5 Chemical Sensing of Graphene and Its Nanocomposites 477

15.6 Conclusion and Future Aspects 493

Acknowledgements 494

References 494

Index 501

About the Author

Ashutosh Tiwari is an Associate Professor at theBiosensors and Bioelectronics Centre, Linkoping University,Sweden; Editor-in-Chief, Advanced Materials Letters andAdvanced Materials Reviews; Secretary General, InternationalAssociation of Advanced Materials; a materials chemist and also adocent in applied physics at Linkoping University, Sweden. Hehas published more than 350 articles, patents, and conferenceproceedings in the field of materials science and technology andhas edited/authored about twenty books on the advancedstate-of-the-art of materials science. He is a founding member ofthe Advanced Materials World Congress and the Indian MaterialsCongress. Mustafa M. Demir received his PhD degree fromSabanc University, Turkey, in 2004. From 2004 to 2007 he wasa postdoctoral fellow at the Max Planck Institute of PolymerResearch, Mainz, Germany. He then moved to Izmir Institute ofTechnology, Turkey, where he is now Chairman of the Department ofMaterials Science and Engineering.

Reviews

"I do, however, think that the book will enable readers to enter into debates about God in a fully rational way, and with an awareness of the complexities of theistic arguments. It is one for students of the philosophy of religion to study, and they will do so with profit." (Church Times, 20 May 2011)

"As a philosophy instructor (who frequently teaches philosophy of religion), I find Shook's book to be comprehensive in its coverage. The theological arguments, as well as the atheological responses to them, are presented in accessible terms, and analyzed perspicuously." ("Metapsychology", February 2011) "In this talk, The Center for Inquiry's John Shook, author of The God Debates, will discuss effective ways for nonbelievers to engage believers over that very question: "Does a god exist?" Maybe it's not the old, familiar arguments themselves, but new strategies and tactics that make the atheist message get heard and produce results."" (Science in the City, " February 2011)""The God Debates" is a clear, accessible, up-to-date account of philosophical wrangles about the existence of God. Shook re-organises the arguments in an interesting way ... [and] takes on more esoteric arguments such as the claim that we must presuppose the existence of God if we are to engage in reasoning and scientific inquiry. In all, this is a lucid, concise, up-to-date, yet comprehensive account of intellectual debates about the existence of God. It is easy enough to be used by senior high school students, and could certainly be useful in undergraduate courses in philosophy of religion." ("Metamagician and the Hellfire Club", October 2010)


"As a philosophy instructor (who frequently teaches philosophy of religion), I find Shook's book to be comprehensive in its coverage. The theological arguments, as well as the atheological responses to them, are presented in accessible terms, and analyzed perspicuously." ("Metapsychology," February 2011)

"In this talk, The Center for Inquiry's John Shook, author of The God Debates, will discuss effective ways for nonbelievers to engage believers over that very question: "Does a god exist?" Maybe it's not the old, familiar arguments themselves, but new strategies and tactics that make the atheist message get heard and produce results."" (Science in the City, " February 2011)""The God Debates" is a clear, accessible, up-to-date account of philosophical wrangles about the existence of God. Shook re-organises the arguments in an interesting way ... [and] takes on more esoteric arguments such as the claim that we must presuppose the existence of God if we are to engage in reasoning an

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