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Afforestation, Reforestation and Forest Restoration in Arid and Semi-Arid Tropics
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Table of Contents

Foreword
Preface
Acknowledgement
PART 1 TECHNOLOGY
Chapter 1 Introduction

1.1 The imperative of afforestation and reforestation
1.1 Afforestation and reforestation for conservation
1.2 Afforestation and reforestation for subsistence economy and livelihoods
1.3 Afforestation, reforestation, forest restoration and tree planting
1.4 Afforestation for industrial-commercial purposes
1.5 The technology of afforestation
1.6 Participation of local communities
1.7 Constraints in afforestation and reforestation
1.8 Constraints specific to arid and semi-arid areas
1.9 Costs in afforestation
Chapter 2 Nursery Techniques
2.1 Establishment of a new nursery
2.2 Plant production plan
2.3 Planning seasonal activities
2.4 Procurement and storage of seeds
2.5 Procurement of manure, clay and sand
2.6 Procurement and storage of polypots
2.7 Filling the polypots
2.8 Preparing seedbeds and motherbeds
2.9 Sowing seeds in polypots and beds
2.10. Transplanting and potting
2.11 Irrigating plants in pots and beds
2.12 Weeding and cleaning
2.13 Protection from insects and pests
2.14 Pot turning
2.15 Preparing and planting cuttings
2.16. Culling, selection and grading
2.17 Transportation of plants
Chapter 3 Site Selection, Survey and Treatment Plan
3.1 Site Selection
3.2 Surveying a site using chain & compass
3.3 Plain table survey
3.4 Tachymetric survey
3.5 Advanced automatic surveying equipment
3.6 Setting out contours with hydrostatic level
3.7 Setting out engineering structures with hsl
3.8 Site treatment plan
Chapter 4 Fencing Work
4.1 Stone wall fence
4.2 Ditch-cum-bund fence
4.3 Barbed-wire fence
4.4 Live-hedge in fencing
4.5 Entrance gate and inspection path
Chapter 5 Soil-and-Water Conservation Works
5.1 Alignment of structures
5.2 Digging of contour trench
5.3 Digging of v-ditch
5.4 Digging of pits
5.5 Contour dike-cum-terraces
5.6 Bench terraces and gradoni
5.7 Contour bunds and contour furrows
5.8 Vegetative barriers
5.9 Loose-stone checkdams
5.10 Stopdams and weirs
5.11 Earthen embankments
Chapter 6 Planting, Regeneration, Aftercare and Maintenance
6.1 Time and season for planting
6.2 Transporting plants to pits
6.3 The operation of planting
6.4 Making of pit-saucers
6.5 Beating up casualties
6.6 Ensuring continued protection
6.7 Replacement of casualties
6.8 Removal of weeds
6.9 Hoeing the plants
6.10 Watering the plants
6.11 Fertilising and manuring
6.12 Growth of plants
6.13 Tending the rootstock
6.14 Maintenance of s&wc structures
6.15 Plantation maintenance in sand dunes
6.16 Long-term maintenance
PART 2 MANAGEMENT
Chapter 7 Costing and Estimation of Works
7.1 Schedule of labour rates
7.2 Model treatment plans
7.3 Units of measurement and conversion tables
Chapter 8 Organizing and Staffing Programmes and Projects
8.1 Organisation structure and staffing
8.2 Organisational effectiveness
Chapter 9 Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation
9.1 Planning time-critical activities
9.2 Monitoring, evaluation and review
9.3 Quality control and work productivity
9.4 Recordkeeping and documentation
Chapter 10 Ensuring Sustainability
10.1 Institutional sustainability
10.2 Resource sustainability

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