About This Book iii Tables, Figures, and Exhibits xv Web Site Tools xvii Preface xxi Introduction xxiii Audience xxiv How This Book Is Organized xxiv Getting the Most from This Resource xxvi Key Terms Used Throughout the Book xxvii 1 Thinking Performance in the Twenty-First Century 1 Performance Is Our Business 1 Performers Do Have a Choice 2 Viewing Training Through a Different Lens 3 Client-Friendly Performance Framework 4 Business Outcome 6 Execution in the Work Setting 6 Performance Readiness 12 Preferences 14 The Training and Performance Process 14 Top Three Barriers to Performance 16 Summary 17 2 Five Key Factors of Alignment 19 It's About Results 19 Performance Results Defined 20 Keys to Alignment and Linkage 20 Factor One: Business Outcome Need Is Identified Up Front 22 Factor Two: The Training and Performance Design Is Guided by the Root Cause and Relevant Needs 26 Factor Three: Development and Delivery Are Focused and Linked to the Training and Performance Design 27 Factor Four: Following Delivery, Performers Choose to Execute in the Work Setting 29 Factor Five: Execution Is Linked to One or More Business Outcome Measures 29 Summary 31 3 PAL: The Alignment of Our Processes 33 With a New View Come New Processes 33 Introduction to the PAL Process 34 Phase One: Situational Needs Assessment and Performance Design 36 Step 1: Scope the Project and Utilize Six Signals to Determine Assessment Strategy 36 Step 2: Conduct Detailed Assessment and Analysis and Identify Alternative Solutions 37 Step 3: Administer Situational Risk Assessment and Analysis 37 Step 4: Propose the Solution and Negotiate Performance Alignment Contract 38 Step 5: Go/No Go Solution Decision 38 Phase Two: Design and Development 39 Step 6: Finalize Delivery Design and Strategy for Performance Transfer 39 Step 7: Develop and/or Acquire Focused Performance Solution Components 40 Phase Three: Delivery and Execution 41 Step 8: Implement Pre-Engagement Action 41 Step 9: Deliver Performance Solution and Assess Learning Readiness and Initial Reaction 41 Step 10: Trigger Transfer Strategy and Work Setting Execution 42 Phase Four: Verification and Follow-Up 43 Step 11: Rapid Verification of Results and Follow-Up Action Steps 43 Guiding Principles 43 Summary 43 4 Situational Needs Assessment: Opening the Door 45 A Process with Many Names 45 Getting Started 46 Two Roles for Needs Assessment 46 Proactive Role 47 Client Request Role 48 Client Key Behavior and Suggested Solutions 49 Client Resistance to Our Processes 49 The Initial Meeting: Let the Client Talk 50 Step 1 of the PAL Process: Scope the Project 52 The Six Signals 52 Intake Scope and Alignment Document 64 Summary 73 5 Situational Needs Assessment: The Analysis 75 Step 2 of the PAL Process: Conduct Detailed Assessment and Analysis 75 The Approach 76 The Strategy 76 Sampling 81 Data Collection Methods and Sources 83 Data Collection Methods 83 Data Collection Sources 85 Detailed Analysis 87 Execution Gap Analysis 88 Root Cause Analysis 89 The Acid Test 92 Step 3 of the PAL Process: Administer Situational Risk Assessment and Analysis 92 The Guiding Objectives and Measures 97 Risk Analysis: Assessing the Need for a Transfer Action and Strategy 98 Summary 107 6 Aligning and Proposing the Solution 109 Believe in Your Solution 109 Influencing the Client 110 Step 4 of the PAL Process: Propose the Solution and Negotiate Performance Alignment Contract 110 Educating the Client 113 Negotiating the Solution and the Performance Alignment Contract 119 Evaluation Inquiry 125 Step 5 of the PAL Process: Go/No Go Decision 126 Forecasting the Return on Investment 126 Summary 129 7 Aligning Design and Development 131 The Alignment Continues 131 The Phase Two Handoff 132 Step 6 of the PAL Process: Finalize Delivery Design and Transfer Strategy 134 The Handoff Briefing 134 Step 7 of the PAL Process: Develop or Acquire Focused Solution Components 140 Key Factors for Learning and Performance 141 The Training Manager's Role 143 Summary 143 8 Aligning Delivery and Execution 145 Enabling the Performer 145 Phase Three of the PAL Process 147 Step 8 of the PAL Process: Implement Pre-Engagement Action 147 Step 9 of the PAL Process: Deliver Performance Solution and Assess Readiness 149 The Delivery 149 Learner Readiness and Initial Reaction 151 Step 10 of the PAL Process: Trigger Transfer Strategy and Execution 153 The Follow-Up Transfer Action and Strategy 153 Developing a Transfer Strategy 154 The Significance of Active Management Reinforcement 158 Summary 159 9 Rapid Verification of Results 161 In The End It's Results That Count 161 The Evaluation Decision 162 Evaluation Framework 164 Step 11 of the PAL Process: Rapid Verification of Results 167 Step 1: Determine Purpose and Verify Sponsorship for Evaluation 167 Step 2: Develop Detailed Plans for Low-Intensity Rapid Verification Strategy 170 Step 3: Collect and Analyze Readiness Data 179 Step 4: Collect and Analyze Follow-Up Performance Data 179 Step 5: Communicate Findings and Recommend Follow-Up Action 191 Summary 195 10 Cultivating and Sustaining Sponsorship 197 Contribution and Survival 197 Importance of Sponsorship 198 Influencing Sponsorship 199 Channel One: Direct Use Knowledge 200 Channel Two: Casual Indicators 200 Channel Three: Communication of Demonstrated Results 202 The Outside View 203 It's Time to Stop Doing and Start Doing 206 Working Our Processes 208 A Few Closing Thoughts 209 Summary 210 Bibliography 211 About the Author 213 Index 215
Ron Drew Stone, an international consultant and presenter, is one of the world's most recognized and accomplished authorities on improving training and performance interventions and measuring results. He is president of the Center for Performance and ROI. He is also a partner with the ROI Institute, where he has helped to refine the ROI methodology. He works with businesses and governments around the world, providing performance consulting and workshops in linking training to business measures, designing training for results and ROI, conducting situational needs assessments, and evaluating results. Ron also certifies practitioners in aligning training to achieve business results.