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Analog and Mixed-Signal Electronics
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Table of Contents

Preface xi

Acknowledgments xiii

About the Companion Website xv

1 Introduction to Analog and Mixed-Signal Electronics 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Organization of the Book 3

1.2.1 Chapter 2: Basics of Electronic Components and Devices 3

1.2.2 Chapter 3: Linear System Analysis 3

1.2.3 Chapter 4: Nonlinearities in Analog Electronics 3

1.2.4 Chapter 5: Op Amp Circuits in Analog Electronics 4

1.2.5 Chapter 6: The High-Gain Analog Filter Amplifier 4

1.2.6 Chapter 7: Waveform Generation 4

1.2.7 Chapter 8: Analog-to-Digital and Digital-to-Analog Conversion 4

1.2.8 Chapter 9: Phase-Locked Loops 4

1.2.9 Chapter 10: Power Electronics 5

1.2.10 Chapter 11: High-Frequency (Radio-Frequency) Electronics 5

1.2.11 Chapter 12: Electromagnetic Compatibility 6

Bibliography 6

Problems 6

2 Basics of Electronic Components and Devices 8

2.1 Introduction 8

2.2 Passive Devices 9

2.2.1 Resistors 9

2.2.2 Capacitors 11

2.2.3 Inductors 12

2.2.4 Connectors 13

2.2.5 Antennas 14

2.3 Active Devices 15

2.3.1 Diodes 15

2.3.2 Field-Effect Transistors 17

2.3.3 BJTs 22

2.3.4 Power Devices 24

Bibliography 29

Problems 30

3 Linear Systems Analysis 33

3.1 Basics of Linear Systems 33

3.1.1 Two-Terminal Component Models 34

3.1.2 Two-Port Matrix Analysis 42

3.2 Noise and Linear Systems 48

3.2.1 Sources of Noise 49

3.2.2 Noise in Designs 53

Bibliography 56

Problems 56

Project Problem: Measurement of Inductor Characteristics 59

Equipment and Supplies 59

Description 59

4 Nonlinearities in Analog Electronics 62

4.1 Why All Amplifiers Are Nonlinear 62

4.2 Effects of Small Nonlinearity 63

4.2.1 Second-Order Nonlinearity 63

4.2.2 Third-Order Nonlinearity 67

4.3 Large-Scale Nonlinearity: Clipping 69

4.4 The Big Picture: Dynamic Range 74

Bibliography 76

Problems 76

5 O p Amp Circuits in Analog Electronics 78

5.1 Introduction 78

5.2 The Modern Op Amp 80

5.2.1 Ideal Equivalent-Circuit Model 80

5.2.2 Internal Block Diagram of Typical Op Amp 81

5.2.3 Op Amp Characteristics 85

5.3 Analog Circuits Using Op Amps 88

5.3.1 Linear Op Amp Circuits 92

5.3.2 Nonlinear Op Amp Circuits 105

Bibliography 115

Problems 115

6 The High-Gain Analog Filter Amplifier 124

6.1 Applications of High-Gain Filter Amplifiers 124

6.1.1 Audio-Frequency Applications 125

6.1.2 Sensor Applications 126

6.2 Issues in High-Gain Amplifier Design 130

6.2.1 Dynamic-Range Problems 130

6.2.2 Oscillation Problems 131

6.3 Poles, Zeroes, Transfer Functions, and All That 134

6.4 Passive Analog Filters 137

6.4.1 One-Pole Lowpass Filter 137

6.4.2 One-Pole, One-Zero Highpass Filter 141

6.4.3 Complex-Pole Bandpass Filter 143

6.4.4 Bandstop Filters 149

6.5 Active Analog Filters 149

6.5.1 Sallen-Key Lowpass Filter with Butterworth Response 150

6.5.2 Biquad Filter with Lowpass, Bandpass, or Highpass Response 158

6.5.3 Switched-Capacitor Filters 162

6.6 Design Example: Electric Guitar Preamp 164

Bibliography 169

Problems 169

7 Waveform Generation 175

7.1 Introduction 175

7.2 "Linear" Sine-Wave Oscillators and Stability Analysis 176

7.2.1 Stable and Unstable Circuits: An Example 176

7.2.2 Poles and Stability 180

7.2.3 Nyquist Stability Criterion 181

7.2.4 The Barkhausen Criterion 186

7.2.5 Noise in Oscillators 189

7.3 Types of Feedback-Loop Quasilinear Oscillators 193

7.3.1 R-C Oscillators 195

7.3.2 Quartz-Crystal Resonators and Oscillators 198

7.3.3 MEMS Resonators and Oscillators 202

7.4 Types of Two-State or Relaxation Oscillators 204

7.4.1 Astable Multivibrator 205

7.4.2 555 Timer 207

7.5 Design Aid: Single-Frequency Series-Parallel and Parallel-Series Conversion Formulas 209

7.6 Design Example: BJT Quartz-Crystal Oscillator 211

Bibliography 219

Problems 219

8 Analog-to-Digital and Digital-to-Analog Conversion 225

8.1 Introduction 225

8.2 Analog and Digital Signals 226

8.2.1 Analog Signals and Measurements 226

8.2.2 Accuracy, Precision, and Resolution 227

8.2.3 Digital Signals and Concepts: The Sampling Theorem 230

8.2.4 Signal Measurements and Quantum Limits 234

8.3 Basics of Analog-to-Digital Conversion 235

8.3.1 Quantization Error 235

8.3.2 Output Filtering and Oversampling 237

8.3.3 Resolution and Speed of ADCs 239

8.4 Examples of ADC Circuits 242

8.4.1 Flash Converter 242

8.4.2 Successive-Approximation Converter 244

8.4.3 Delta-Sigma ADC 245

8.4.4 Dual-Slope Integration ADC 250

8.4.5 Other ADC Approaches 252

8.5 Examples of DAC Circuits 253

8.5.1 R-2R Ladder DAC 255

8.5.2 Switched-Capacitor DAC 256

8.5.3 One-Bit DAC 258

8.6 System-Level ADC and DAC Operations 259

Bibliography 262

Problems 262

9 Phase-Locked Loops 269

9.1 Introduction 269

9.2 Basics of PLLs 270

9.3 Control Theory for PLLs 271

9.3.1 First-Order PLL 273

9.3.2 Second-Order PLL 274

9.4 The CD4046B PLL IC 280

9.4.1 Phase Detector 1: Exclusive-OR 280

9.4.2 Phase Detector 2: Charge Pump 282

9.4.3 VCO Circuit 285

9.5 Loop Locking, Tuning, and Related Issues 286

9.6 PLLs in Frequency Synthesizers 288

9.7 Design Example Using CD4046B PLL IC 289

Bibliography 294

Problems 294

10 Power Electronics 298

10.1 Introduction 298

10.2 Applications of Power Electronics 300

10.3 Power Supplies 300

10.3.1 Power-Supply Characteristics and Definitions 300

10.3.2 Primary Power Sources 303

10.3.3 AC-to-DC Conversion in Power Supplies 306

10.3.4 Linear Voltage Regulators for Power Supplies 309

10.3.5 Switching Power Supplies and Regulators 318

10.4 Power Amplifiers 337

10.4.1 Class A Power Amplifier 338

10.4.2 Class B Power Amplifier 346

10.4.3 Class AB Power Amplifier 347

10.4.4 Class D Power Amplifier 355

10.5 Devices for Power Electronics: Speed and Switching Efficiency 360

10.5.1 BJTs 361

10.5.2 Power FETs 361

10.5.3 IGBTs 361

10.5.4 Thyristors 362

10.5.5 Vacuum Tubes 362

Bibliography 363

Problems 363

11 High-Frequency (RF) Electronics 370

11.1 Circuits at Radio Frequencies 370

11.2 RF Ranges and Uses 372

11.3 Special Characteristics of RF Circuits 375

11.4 RF Transmission Lines, Filters, and Impedance-Matching Circuits 376

11.4.1 RF Transmission Lines 376

11.4.2 Filters for Radio-Frequency Interference Prevention 385

11.4.3 Transmitter and Receiver Filters 387

11.4.4 Impedance-Matching Circuits 389

11.5 RF Amplifiers 400

11.5.1 RF Amplifiers for Transmitters 400

11.5.2 RF Amplifiers for Receivers 406

11.6 Other RF Circuits and Systems 416

11.6.1 Mixers 417

11.6.2 Phase Shifters and Modulators 420

11.6.3 RF Switches 423

11.6.4 Oscillators and Multipliers 423

11.6.5 Transducers for Photonics and Other Applications 426

11.6.6 Antennas 428

11.7 RF Design Tools 433

Bibliography 435

Problems 435

12 E lectromagnetic Compatibility 446

12.1 What is Electromagnetic Compatibility? 446

12.2 Types of EMI Problems 448

12.2.1 Communications EMI 448

12.2.2 Noncommunications EMI 453

12.3 Modes of EMI Transfer 454

12.3.1 Conduction 454

12.3.2 Electric Fields (Capacitive EMI) 456

12.3.3 Magnetic Fields (Inductive EMI) 458

12.3.4 Electromagnetic Fields (Radiation EMI) 461

12.4 Ways to Reduce EMI 465

12.4.1 Bypassing and Filtering 465

12.4.2 Grounding 470

12.4.3 Shielding 474

12.5 Designing with EMI and EMC in Mind 479

12.5.1 EMC Regulators and Regulations 479

12.5.2 Including EMC in Designs 479

Bibliography 481

Problems 481

Appendix: Test Equipment for Analog and Mixed-Signal Electronics 489

A.1 Introduction 489

A.2 Laboratory Power Supplies 490

A.3 Digital Volt-Ohm-Milliammeters 492

A.4 Function Generators 494

A.5 Oscilloscopes 496

A.6 Arbitrary Waveform Generators 499

A.7 Other Types of Analog and Mixed-Signal Test Equipment 500

A.7.1 Spectrum Analyzers 500

A.7.2 Logic Analyzers 501

A.7.3 Network Analyzers 501

Index 503

About the Author

Karl D. Stephan, PhD, is Professor in the Ingram School of Engineering, Texas State University, USA. Dr Stephan has published six book chapters and over 80 journal and conference papers in the fields of micr wave engineering, atmospheric physics, the history of technology, and engineering ethics.

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