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Analyzing English Grammar


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Table of Contents

Preface xii CHAPTER 1INTRODUCTION 1What Is Grammar? 2Grammar Versus Usage 6Descriptive Grammars 8Grammatical Prototypes 10Learning About Grammar 13Aids to Learning About Language 15Diagramming 15IC Analysis 16Phrase Structure Trees 17Suggestions for Reading This Book 17Key Terms 18Endnotes 18 CHAPTER 2VARIETIES OF ENGLISH 19Regional Dialects 21Social Dialects 23Standard American English 25Styles 28Second Language Acquisition 30English in an International Context 32Summary 35Key Terms 36Endnotes 36 CHAPTER 3THE MORPHOLOGY OF ENGLISH 37Morphemes 38Allomorphs 43Inflectional Morphemes 43Noun Inflections 45Verb Inflections 47Adjective and Adverb Inflections 50Functional Shift 50Derivational Morphemes 52Form Classes and Structure Classes 56A Word About Words 57Summary 59Review Exercises 59Key Terms 62 CHAPTER 4FORM-CLASS WORDS 63Form and Function 64Forms with Overlapping Functions 65Nouns 66Prototypes and Peripheral Cases 69Subclasses and Features 70Noun Subclasses 71Verbs 73Verb Subclasses 75Adjectives 76Adjective Subclasses 78Adverbs 81Adverb Subclasses 84Analyzing Form and Function 84Comments and Suggestions 88Summary 91Review Exercises 91Key Terms 93Endnote 93 CHAPTER 5STRUCTURE-CLASS WORDS, PART I: Modifying Words 95Structure-Class Versus Form-Class Words 95Determiners 99Diagrams and Trees 104Auxiliaries 106Modal Auxiliaries 107Have 108Be 108Do 109Diagrams and Trees 111Qualifiers 111Diagrams and Trees 113Pronouns 117Pronouns as Noun-Phrase Substitutes 117Personal Pronouns 118Reflexive Pronouns 121Reciprocal Pronouns 123Indefinite Pronouns 123Summary 127Review Exercises 127Key Terms 129 CHAPTER 6STRUCTURE-CLASS WORDS, PART II: Connecting Words 131Prepositions 131Diagrams and Trees 133Differences Between Prepositions and Adverbs 135Differences Between Prepositions and Verb Particles 135Differences Between Verb Particles and Adverbs 136Conjunctions 138Coordinating Conjunctions 138Conjunctive Adverbs 141Subordinating Conjunctions 142Relatives 148Interrogatives 152Summary 154Review Exercises 154Key Terms 156Endnote 156 CHAPTER 7PHRASES 157Subjects and Predicates 157Form and Function 163Recognizing Phrase Types 164The Main Verb Phrase 170Creating Verb Phrases 176Time, Tense, and Aspect 184Simple Tenses 185Finite and Nonfinite Verb Forms 185Compound Verb Forms-Perfect and Progressive 188The Meaning of Modals 192Other Auxiliaries 194Have and Be as Main Verbs 196The Subjunctive Mood 198Summary 199Review Exercises 200Key Terms 203Endnotes 203 CHAPTER 8FIVE BASIC SENTENCE TYPES 205Binary Structure 206Type I-The Intransitive Type 208Types II, III, and IV-Linking (Copular) Verbs 215Type II-The Verb Be Requiring Adverbs of Time or Place 215Type III-The Linking Verb Type with Adjectival SubjectComplement 220Type IV-The Linking Verb Type with Nominal SubjectComplement 225Type V-The Transitive Type 229Transitive Verbs with Reflexive and Reciprocal DirectObjects 233Transitive Verbs with Object Complements 234Distinguishing Between Transitive and Linking Verb SentenceTypes 236Verbs That Function in More Than One Sentence Type 237Summary 241Review Exercises 244Key Terms 246 CHAPTER 9BASIC SENTENCE TRANSFORMATIONS 247The Indirect Object Transformation 248Indirect Objects and Object Complements 251The Passive Transformation 254Direct and Indirect Objects 258Other Transformations 265Negative Sentences 266Negative Sentences with Auxiliary Verbs 267Negative Sentences with Be 268Negative Sentences Without Auxiliary Verbs or Be 268Interrogative Sentences 274Yes/No Questions 274Wh-Questions 278Imperative Sentences 287Verbs in Imperative Sentences 288Summary 290Review Exercises 290Key Terms 292 CHAPTER 10FINITE VERB CLAUSES, PART I:Adverbial and Adjectival Clauses 293Sentence Varieties 295Subordinate Clauses 299Diagramming Subordinate Clauses 304Subordinate Clauses That Can Function Adverbiallyor Adjectivally 306Relative Clauses 307Relative Clauses Within Prepositional Phrases 310Diagramming Relative Clauses 311The Omission of Relative Pronouns 315Relative Adverbs 317Relative Clauses Contrasted with Adverbial Subordinate Clauses 320Restrictive and Nonrestrictive Relative Clauses 322Summary 327Review Exercises 327Key Terms 330 CHAPTER 11FINITE VERB CLAUSES, PART II:Nominal Clauses 331That-Clauses 331Differences Between Relative Clauses and Nominal That-Clauses 334Appositive That-Clauses 335Relative Clauses and Deletion Transformations: Appositives 337Functions of Nominal That-Clauses 341Diagramming Nominal That-Clauses 342Interrogative Clauses 345Diagramming Interrogative Clauses 348Rhetorical Problems in Using Dependent Clauses 351Elliptical Dependent Clauses 354Summary 356Review Exercises 356Key Terms 359 CHAPTER 12NONFINITE VERB PHRASES 361Infinitive Phrases 362Diagramming Infinitive Phrases 365Passive Infinitives 370Infinitives Without To 370Functions of Infinitive Phrases 372Adverbial Infinitives 372Adjectival Infinitives 373Nominal Infinitives 374Differences Between Infinitives and Prepositional Phrases 377Present Participle Phrases 377Functions of Present Participle Phrases 379Diagramming Present Participle Phrases 380Differences Between Present Participles and Adjectives 385Gerunds 386Functions of Gerunds and Gerund Phrases 388Differences Between Gerunds and Nouns 389Past Participle Phrases 392Restrictive and Nonrestrictive Participle Phrases 394Summary 402Review Exercises 402Key Terms 406 APPENDIX:The Sounds of American English 407Consonants of English 408Allophones 412Vowels of English 413American Pronunciation 419Pronunciation and Spelling 419Phonics and Phonemic Awareness 421Summary 422Review Exercises 422Key Terms 422Glossary 423Index 435

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