Each chapter ends with a Chapter Summary, For Review, Key Terms, and Suggested Readings.BoxesPrefaceCHAPTER 1 What Is Anthropology?What Is Anthropology?What Is the Concept of Culture?What Makes Anthropology a Cross-Disciplinary Discipline?Biological Anthropology--IN THEIR OWN WORDS: Anthropology as a Vocation: Listening to VoicesCultural AnthropologyLinguistic AnthropologyArchaeologyApplied AnthropologyMedical AnthropologyThe Uses of Anthropology--IN THEIR OWN WORDS: What Can You Learn from an Anthropology Major?MODULE 1: Anthropology, Science, and StorytellingScientific and Nonscientific ExplanationsSome Key Scientific ConceptsMODULE SUMMARYFOR REVIEWKEY TERMSCHAPTER 2 Why Is Evolution Important to Anthropologists?What Is Evolutionary Theory?What Material Evidence Is There for Evolution?Pre-Darwinian Views of the Natural WorldEssentialismThe Great Chain of BeingCatastrophism and UniformitarianismTransformational EvolutionWhat Is Natural Selection?Population ThinkingNatural Selection in ActionHow Did Biologists Learn about Genes?Mendel's ExperimentsThe Emergence of GeneticsWhat Are the Basics of Contemporary Genetics?Genes and Traits--ANTHROPOLOGY in Everyday Life: Investigating Human-Rights Violations and Identifying RemainsMutationDNA and the GenomeGenotype, Phenotype, and the Norm of Reaction--IN THEIR OWN WORDS: How Living Organisms Construct Their EnvironmentsWhat Does Evolution Mean?CHAPTER 3 What Can the Study of Primates Tell Us about Human Beings?What Are Primates?How Do Biologists Classify Primates?How Many Categories of Living Primates Are There?StrepsirrhinesHaplorhines--IN THEIR OWN WORDS: The Future of Primate BiodiversityWhat Is Ethnoprimatology?--IN THEIR OWN WORDS: Chimpanzee TourismAre There Patterns in Primate Evolution?How Do Paleoanthropologists Reconstruct Primate Evolutionary History?Primates of the PaleocenePrimates of the EocenePrimates of the OligocenePrimates of the MioceneMODULE 2: Dating Methods in Paleoanthropology and ArchaeologyRelative Dating MethodsNumerical (or Absolute) Dating MethodsModeling Prehistoric ClimatesMODULE SUMMARYFOR REVIEWKEY TERMSCHAPTER 4 What Can the Fossil Record Tell Us about Human Origins?What Is Macroevolution?What Is Hominin Evolution?Who Were the First Hominins (6-3 mya)?The Origin of Bipedalism--IN THEIR OWN WORDS: Finding FossilsChanges in Hominin DentitionWho Were the Later Australopiths (3-1.5 mya)?How Many Species of Australopith Were There?How Can Anthropologists Explain the Human Transition?What Do We Know about Early Homo (2.4-1.5 mya)?Expansion of the Australopith BrainHow Many Species of Early Homo Were There?Earliest Evidence of Culture: Stone ToolsWho Was Homo erectus (1.8-1.7 mya to 0.5-0.4 mya)?Morphological Traits of H. erectusThe Culture of H. erectusH. erectus the Hunter?What Happened to H. erectus?How Did Homo sapiens Evolve?What Is the Fossil Evidence for the Transition to Modern H. sapiens?Where Did Modern H. sapiens Come from?Who Were the Neandertals (130,000-35,000 Years Ago)?What Do We Know about Middle Paleolithic/Middle Stone Age Culture?--IN THEIR OWN WORDS: Bad Hair Days in the Paleolithic: Modern (Re)Constructions of the Cave ManDid Neandertals Hunt?What Do We Know about Anatomically Modern Humans (200,000 Years Ago to Present)?What Can Genetics Tell Us about Modern Human Origins?What Do We Know about the Upper Paleolithic/Late Stone Age (40,000?-12,000 Years Ago)?What Happened to the Neandertals?How Many Kinds of Upper Paleolithic/Late Stone Age Cultures Were There?Where Did Modern H. sapiens Migrate in Late Pleistocene Times?--IN THEIR OWN WORDS: Women's Art in the Upper Paleolithic?Eastern Asia and SiberiaThe AmericasAustralasiaTwo Million Years of Human EvolutionCHAPTER 5 What Can Evolutionary Theory Tell Us about Human Variation?What Is Microevolution?The Modern Evolutionary Synthesis and Its Legacy--IN THEIR OWN WORDS: Have We Ever Been Individuals?The Molecularization of Race?The Four Evolutionary Processes--IN THEIR OWN WORDS: DNA Tests Find Branches but Few RootsMicroevolution and Patterns of Human VariationAdaptation and Human VariationPhenotype, Environment, and CultureCan We Predict the Future of Human Evolution?CHAPTER 6 How Do We Know about the Human Past?What Is Archaeology?SurveysArchaeological ExcavationArchaeology and Digital HeritageHow Do Archaeologists Interpret the Past?Subsistence StrategiesBands, Tribes, Chiefdoms, and StatesWhose Past Is It?How Is the Past Being Plundered?--IN THEIR OWN WORDS: Rescue Archaeology in EuropeWhat Are the Critical Issues in Contemporary Archaeology?Archaeology and GenderCollaborative Approaches to Studying the Past--ANTHROPOLOGY in Everyday Life: Archaeology as a Tool of Civic EngagementCosmopolitan ArchaeologiesCHAPTER 7 Why Did Humans Settle Down, Build Cities, and Establish States?How Is the Human Imagination Entangled with the Material World?Is Plant Cultivation a Form of Niche Construction?How Do Anthropologists Explain the Origins of Animal Domestication?Was There Only One Motor of Domestication?How Did Domestication, Cultivation, and Sedentism Begin in Southwest Asia?Natufian Social Organization--ANTHROPOLOGY in Everyday Life: Catalhoeyuk in the Twenty-First CenturyNatufian SubsistenceDomestication Elsewhere in the WorldWhat Were the Consequences of Domestication and Sedentism?--IN THEIR OWN WORDS: The Food RevolutionHow Do Anthropologists Define Social Complexity?Why Is It Incorrect to Describe Foraging Societies as "Simple"?What Is the Archaeological Evidence for Social Complexity?Why Did Stratification Begin?How Can Anthropologists Explain the Rise of Complex Societies?--IN THEIR OWN WORDS: The Ecological Consequences of Social ComplexityAndean CivilizationCHAPTER 8 Why Is the Concept of Culture Important?How Do Anthropologists Define Culture?--IN THEIR OWN WORDS: The Paradox of Ethnocentrism--IN THEIR OWN WORDS: Culture and FreedomCulture, History, and Human Agency--IN THEIR OWN WORDS: Human-Rights Law and the Demonization of CultureWhy Do Cultural Differences Matter?What Is Ethnocentrism?Is It Possible to Avoid Ethnocentric Bias?What Is Cultural Relativism?How Can Cultural Relativity Improve Our Understanding of Controversial Cultural Practices?Genital Cutting, Gender, and Human RightsGenital Cutting as a Valued RitualCulture and Moral ReasoningDid Their Culture Make Them Do It?Does Culture Explain Everything?Cultural Imperialism or Cultural Hybridity?Cultural HybridityAre There Limits to Cultural Hybridity?Can We Be at Home in a Global World?The Promise of the Anthropological PerspectiveMODULE 3: On Ethnographic MethodsA Meeting of Cultural TraditionsSingle-Sited FieldworkHow Do Anthropologists Think about the Ethics of Their Work?What Is Participant Observation?Multisited FieldworkCollecting and Interpreting DataThe Dialectic of Fieldwork: Interpretation and TranslationInterpreting Actions and IdeasThe Dialectic of Fieldwork: An ExampleThe Effects of FieldworkThe Production of Anthropological KnowledgeAnthropological Knowledge as Open-EndedMODULE SUMMARYFOR REVIEWKEY TERMSSUGGESTED READINGSCHAPTER 9 Why Is Understanding Human Language Important?What Makes Language Distinctively Human?How Are Language and Culture Related?How Do People Talk about Experience?--IN THEIR OWN WORDS: Cultural TranslationWhat Does It Mean to "Learn" a Language?How Does Context Affect Language?How Does Language Affect How We See the World?Pragmatics: How Do We Study Language in Contexts of Use?EthnopragmaticsWhat Happens When Languages Come into Contact?What Is the Difference between a Pidgin and a Creole?How Is Meaning Negotiated?What Is Linguistic Inequality?What Is Language Ideology?How Have Language Ideologies Been at Work in Studies of African American Speech?--IN THEIR OWN WORDS: Varieties of African American EnglishWhat Is Raciolinguistics?What Is Lost If a Language Dies?--ANTHROPOLOGY in Everyday Life: Language RevitalizationHow Are Language and Truth Connected?MODULE 4: Components of LanguagePhonology: SoundsMorphology: Word StructureSyntax: Sentence StructureSemantics: MeaningFOR REVIEWKEY TERMSCHAPTER 10 How Do We Make Meaning?What Is Play?What Do We Think about Play?What Are Some Effects of Play?What Is Art?Is There a Definition of Art?"But Is It Art?"--IN THEIR OWN WORDS: Tango"She's Fake": Art and AuthenticityHow Does Hip-Hop Become Japanese?What Is Myth?How Does Myth Reflect-and Shape-Society?Do Myths Help Us Think?What Is Ritual?How Can Ritual Be Defined?How Is Ritual Expressed in Action?What Are Rites of Passage?--IN THEIR OWN WORDS: Video in the VillagesHow Are Play and Ritual Complementary?How Are Worldview and Symbolic Practice Related?What Are Symbols?What Is Religion?How Do People Communicate in Religion?How Are Religion and Social Organization Related?Worldviews in Operation: Two Case StudiesCoping with Misfortune: Witchcraft, Oracles, and Magic among the AzandeAre There Patterns of Witchcraft Accusation?Coping with Misfortune: Listening for God among Contemporary Evangelicals in the United States--IN THEIR OWN WORDS: For All Those Who Were Indian in a Former LifeMaintaining and Changing a WorldviewHow Do People Cope with Change?--IN THEIR OWN WORDS: Custom and ConfrontationHow Are Worldviews Used as Instruments of Power?CHAPTER 11 Why Do Anthropologists Study Economic Relations?How Do Anthropologists Study Economic Relations?What Are the Connections between Culture and Livelihood?Self-Interest, Institutions, and MoralsHow Do Anthropologists Study Production, Distribution, and Consumption?How Are Goods Distributed and Exchanged?Capitalism and Neoclassical EconomicsWhat Are Modes of Exchange?--IN THEIR OWN WORDS: "So Much Work, So Much Tragedy . . . and for What?"The Maisin and ReciprocityDoes Production Drive Economic Activities?LaborModes of Production--ANTHROPOLOGY in Everyday Life: Producing Sorghum and Millet in Honduras and the Sudan--IN THEIR OWN WORDS: Solidarity ForeverWhat Is the Role of Conflict in Material Life?Why Do People Consume What They Do?The Internal Explanation: Malinowski and Basic Human NeedsThe External Explanation: Cultural Ecology--IN THEIR OWN WORDS: Questioning CollapseHow Is Consumption Culturally Patterned?How Is Consumption Being Studied Today?--IN THEIR OWN WORDS: Fake Masks and Faux ModernityThe Anthropology of Food and NutritionCHAPTER 12 How Do Anthropologists Study Political Relations?How Are Culture and Politics Related?How Do Anthropologists Study Politics?Is Political Power Nothing More Than Coercion?--IN THEIR OWN WORDS: Protesters Gird for Long Fight over Opening Peru's AmazonWhat Are Domination and Hegemony?What Are Biopower and Governmentality?--IN THEIR OWN WORDS: Reforming the Crow Constitution--ANTHROPOLOGY in Everyday Life: Anthropology and AdvertisingHow Do Anthropologists Study Politics of the Nation-State?Nation Building in a Postcolonial World: The Example of FijiHow Does Globalization Affect the Nation-State?Migration, Trans-Border Identities, and Long-Distance NationalismAnthropology and Multicultural Politics in the New EuropeWhat Happens to Citizenship in a Globalized World?How Can Citizenship Be Flexible?What Is Territorial Citizenship?What Is Vernacular Statecraft?Global Politics in the Twenty-First CenturyCHAPTER 13 What Can Anthropology Teach Us about Sex, Gender, and Sexuality?How Did Twentieth-Century Feminism Shape the Anthropological Study of Sex, Gender, and Sexuality?How Do Anthropologists Organize the Study of Sex, Gender, and Sexuality?--IN THEIR OWN WORDS: The Consequences of Being a WomanHow Are Sex and Gender Affected by Other Forms of Identity?How Do Ethnographers Study Gender Performativity?How Do Anthropologists Study Connections Among Sex, Gender, Sexuality, and the Body?How Do Anthropologists Study Connections between Bodies and Technologies?How Do Anthropologists Study Relations between Sex, Gender, and Sexuality?How Does Ethnography Document Variable Culture?Understandings Concerning Sex, Gender, and SexualityFemale Sexual Practices in MombasaMale and Female Sexual Practices in NicaraguaTranssexuality and Same-Sex Desire in IranCHAPTER 14 Where Do Our Relatives Come from and Why Do They Matter?How Do Human Beings Organize Interdependence?What Is Friendship?What Is Kinship?What Is the Role of Descent in Kinship?Bilateral KindredsWhat Role Do Lineages Play in Descent?Lineage MembershipThe Logic of Lineage RelationshipsWhat Are Patrilineages?What Are Matrilineages?What Are Kinship Terminologies?What Criteria Are Used for Making Kinship Distinctions?What Is Adoption?Adoption in Highland EcuadorWhat Is the Relation between Adoption and Child Circulation in the Andes?How Flexible Can Relatedness Be?Negotiation of Kin Ties among the Ju/'hoansiEuropean American Kinship and New Reproductive TechnologiesAssisted Reproduction in IsraelCompadrazgo in Latin AmericaOrgan Transplantation and the Creation of New RelativesWhat Is Marriage?Toward a Definition of MarriageWoman Marriage and Ghost Marriage among the NuerWhy Is Marriage a Social Process?Patterns of Residence after MarriageSingle and Plural SpousesWhat Is the Connection between Marriage and Economic Exchange?--IN THEIR OWN WORDS: Outside Work, Women, and BridewealthWhat Is a Family?What Is the Nuclear Family?--IN THEIR OWN WORDS: Dowry Too High. Lose Bride and Go to JailWhat Is the Polygynous Family?Extended and Joint FamiliesHow Are Families Transformed over Time?Divorce and Remarriage--IN THEIR OWN WORDS: Law, Custom, and Crimes against WomenHow Does International Migration Affect the Family?--IN THEIR OWN WORDS: Survival and a Surrogate Family--Anthropology in Everyday Life: Caring for Infibulated Women Giving Birth in NorwayFamilies by ChoiceThe Flexibility of Marriage--IN THEIR OWN WORDS: Why Migrant Women Feed Their Husbands Tamales--IN THEIR OWN WORDS: Two Cheers for Gay MarriageLove, Marriage, and HIV/AIDS in NigeriaCHAPTER 15 What Can Anthropology Tell Us about Social Inequality?ClassClass and Gender in IndonesiaClass and Caste in the United States?CasteCaste in India--IN THEIR OWN WORDS: Burakumin: Overcoming Hidden Discrimination in JapanHow Do Caste and Class Intersect in Contemporary India?--IN THEIR OWN WORDS: As Economic Turmoil Mounts, So Do Attacks on Hungary's GypsiesRaceColorism in Nicaragua--IN THEIR OWN WORDS: On the Butt Size of Barbie and Shani: Dolls and Race in the United StatesEthnicity--IN THEIR OWN WORDS: The Politics of EthnicityHow Do Anthropologists Study Human Rights?Are Human Rights Universal?--ANTHROPOLOGY in Everyday Life: Anthropology and Indigenous Rights--IN THEIR OWN WORDS: How Sushi Went GlobalCHAPTER 16 How Is Anthropology Applied in the Field of Medicine?What Is Medical Anthropology?What Makes Medical Anthropology "Biocultural"?--IN THEIR OWN WORDS: American Premenstrual Syndrome--IN THEIR OWN WORDS: The Madness of HungerHow Do People with Different Cultures Understand the Causes of Sickness and Health?Kinds of SelvesDecentered Selves on the Internet--ANTHROPOLOGY in Everyday Life: Lead Poisoning among Mexican American ChildrenSelf and SubjectivitySubjectivity, Trauma, and Structural ViolenceHow Are Human Sickness and Health Shaped by the Global Capitalist Economy?--IN THEIR OWN WORDS: Ethical Dilemmas and DecisionsHealth, Human Reproduction, and Global CapitalismMedical Anthropology and HIV/AIDSThe Future of Medical AnthropologyGlossaryReferencesCreditsIndex
Robert H. Lavenda is Professor Emeritus of Anthropology at St. Cloud State University. Emily A. Schultz is Professor of Anthropology at St. Cloud State University.
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