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Artificial Intelligence
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Table of Contents

I. Artificial Intelligence 1. Introduction 1.1 What is AI? 1.2 The Foundations of Artificial Intelligence 1.3 The History of Artificial Intelligence 1.4 The State of the Art 1.5 Summary, Bibliographical and Historical Notes, Exercises 2. Intelligent Agents 2.1 Agents and Environments 2.2 Good Behavior: The Concept of Rationality 2.3 The Nature of Environments 2.4 The Structure of Agents 2.5 Summary, Bibliographical and Historical Notes, Exercises II. Problem-solving 3. Solving Problems by Searching 3.1 Problem-Solving Agents 3.2 Example Problems 3.3 Searching for Solutions 3.4 Uninformed Search Strategies 3.5 Informed (Heuristic) Search Strategies 3.6 Heuristic Functions 3.7 Summary, Bibliographical and Historical Notes, Exercises 4. Beyond Classical Search 4.1 Local Search Algorithms and Optimization Problems 4.2 Local Search in Continuous Spaces 4.3 Searching with Nondeterministic Actions 4.4 Searching with Partial Observations 4.5 Online Search Agents and Unknown Environments 4.6 Summary, Bibliographical and Historical Notes, Exercises 5. Adversarial Search 5.1 Games 5.2 Optimal Decisions in Games 5.3 Alpha-Beta Pruning 5.4 Imperfect Real-Time Decisions 5.5 Stochastic Games 5.6 Partially Observable Games 5.7 State-of-the-Art Game Programs 5.8 Alternative Approaches 5.9 Summary, Bibliographical and Historical Notes, Exercises 6. Constraint Satisfaction Problems 6.1 Defining Constraint Satisfaction Problems 6.2 Constraint Propagation: Inference in CSPs 6.3 Backtracking Search for CSPs 6.4 Local Search for CSPs 6.5 The Structure of Problems 6.6 Summary, Bibliographical and Historical Notes, Exercises III. Knowledge, Reasoning, and Planning 7. Logical Agents 7.1 Knowledge-Based Agents 7.2 The Wumpus World 7.3 Logic 7.4 Propositional Logic: A Very Simple Logic 7.5 Propositional Theorem Proving 7.6 Effective Propositional Model Checking 7.7 Agents Based on Propositional Logic 7.8 Summary, Bibliographical and Historical Notes, Exercises 8. First-Order Logic 8.1 Representation Revisited 8.2 Syntax and Semantics of First-Order Logic 8.3 Using First-Order Logic 8.4 Knowledge Engineering in First-Order Logic 8.5 Summary, Bibliographical and Historical Notes, Exercises 9. Inference in First-Order Logic 9.1 Propositional vs. First-Order Inference 9.2 Unification and Lifting 9.3 Forward Chaining 9.4 Backward Chaining 9.5 Resolution 9.6 Summary, Bibliographical and Historical Notes, Exercises 10. Classical Planning 10.1 Definition of Classical Planning 10.2 Algorithms for Planning as State-Space Search 10.3 Planning Graphs 10.4 Other Classical Planning Approaches 10.5 Analysis of Planning Approaches 10.6 Summary, Bibliographical and Historical Notes, Exercises 11. Planning and Acting in the Real World 11.1 Time, Schedules, and Resources 11.2 Hierarchical Planning 11.3 Planning and Acting in Nondeterministic Domains 11.4 Multiagent Planning 11.5 Summary, Bibliographical and Historical Notes, Exercises 12 Knowledge Representation 12.1 Ontological Engineering 12.2 Categories and Objects 12.3 Events 12.4 Mental Events and Mental Objects 12.5 Reasoning Systems for Categories 12.6 Reasoning with Default Information 12.7 The Internet Shopping World 12.8 Summary, Bibliographical and Historical Notes, Exercises IV. Uncertain Knowledge and Reasoning 13. Quantifying Uncertainty 13.1 Acting under Uncertainty 13.2 Basic Probability Notation 13.3 Inference Using Full Joint Distributions 13.4 Independence 13.5 Bayes' Rule and Its Use 13.6 The Wumpus World Revisited 13.7 Summary, Bibliographical and Historical Notes, Exercises 14. Probabilistic Reasoning 14.1 Representing Knowledge in an Uncertain Domain 14.2 The Semantics of Bayesian Networks 14.3 Efficient Representation of Conditional Distributions 14.4 Exact Inference in Bayesian Networks 14.5 Approximate Inference in Bayesian Networks 14.6 Relational and First-Order Probability Models 14.7 Other Approaches to Uncertain Reasoning 14.8 Summary, Bibliographical and Historical Notes, Exercises 15. Probabilistic Reasoning over Time 15.1 Time and Uncertainty 15.2 Inference in Temporal Models 15.3 Hidden Markov Models 15.4 Kalman Filters 15.5 Dynamic Bayesian Networks 15.6 Keeping Track of Many Objects 15.7 Summary, Bibliographical and Historical Notes, Exercises 16. Making Simple Decisions 16.1 Combining Beliefs and Desires under Uncertainty 16.2 The Basis of Utility Theory 16.3 Utility Functions 16.4 Multiattribute Utility Functions 16.5 Decision Networks 16.6 The Value of Information 16.7 Decision-Theoretic Expert Systems 16.8 Summary, Bibliographical and Historical Notes, Exercises 17. Making Complex Decisions 17.1 Sequential Decision Problems 17.2 Value Iteration 17.3 Policy Iteration 17.4 Partially Observable MDPs 17.5 Decisions with Multiple Agents: Game Theory 17.6 Mechanism Design 17.7 Summary, Bibliographical and Historical Notes, Exercises V. Learning 18. Learning from Examples 18.1 Forms of Learning 18.2 Supervised Learning 18.3 Learning Decision Trees 18.4 Evaluating and Choosing the Best Hypothesis 18.5 The Theory of Learning 18.6 Regression and Classification with Linear Models 18.7 Artificial Neural Networks 18.8 Nonparametric Models 18.9 Support Vector Machines 18.10 Ensemble Learning 18.11 Practical Machine Learning 18.12 Summary, Bibliographical and Historical Notes, Exercises 19. Knowledge in Learning 19.1 A Logical Formulation of Learning 19.2 Knowledge in Learning 19.3 Explanation-Based Learning 19.4 Learning Using Relevance Information 19.5 Inductive Logic Programming 19.6 Summary, Bibliographical and Historical Notes, Exercises 20. Learning Probabilistic Models 20.1 Statistical Learning 20.2 Learning with Complete Data 20.3 Learning with Hidden Variables: The EM Algorithm 20.4 Summary, Bibliographical and Historical Notes, Exercises 21. Reinforcement Learning 21.1 Introduction 21.2 Passive Reinforcement Learning 21.3 Active Reinforcement Learning 21.4 Generalization in Reinforcement Learning 21.5 Policy Search 21.6 Applications of Reinforcement Learning 21.7 Summary, Bibliographical and Historical Notes, Exercises VI. Communicating, Perceiving, and Acting 22. Natural Language Processing 22.1 Language Models 22.2 Text Classification 22.3 Information Retrieval 22.4 Information Extraction 22.5 Summary, Bibliographical and Historical Notes, Exercises 23. Natural Language for Communication 23.1 Phrase Structure Grammars 23.2 Syntactic Analysis (Parsing) 23.3 Augmented Grammars and Semantic Interpretation 23.4 Machine Translation 23.5 Speech Recognition 23.6 Summary, Bibliographical and Historical Notes, Exercises 24. Perception 24.1 Image Formation 24.2 Early Image-Processing Operations 24.3 Object Recognition by Appearance 24.4 Reconstructing the 3D World 24.5 Object Recognition from Structural Information 24.6 Using Vision 24.7 Summary, Bibliographical and Historical Notes, Exercises 25. Robotics 25.1 Introduction 25.2 Robot Hardware 25.3 Robotic Perception 25.4 Planning to Move 25.5 Planning Uncertain Movements 25.6 Moving 25.7 Robotic Software Architectures 25.8 Application Domains 25.9 Summary, Bibliographical and Historical Notes, Exercises VII. Conclusions 26 Philosophical Foundations 26.1 Weak AI: Can Machines Act Intelligently? 26.2 Strong AI: Can Machines Really Think? 26.3 The Ethics and Risks of Developing Artificial Intelligence 26.4 Summary, Bibliographical and Historical Notes, Exercises 27. AI: The Present and Future 27.1 Agent Components 27.2 Agent Architectures 27.3 Are We Going in the Right Direction? 27.4 What If AI Does Succeed? Appendices A. Mathematical Background A.1 Complexity Analysis and O() Notation A.2 Vectors, Matrices, and Linear Algebra A.3 Probability Distributions B. Notes on Languages and Algorithms B.1 Defining Languages with Backus-Naur Form (BNF) B.2 Describing Algorithms with Pseudocode B.3 Online Help Bibliography Index

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