List of Figures and Tables ix A Note on Transliteration and Personal and Place Names xi Turkish Pronunciation Guide xiii Acknowledgments xv Introduction 1 Chapter 1. Fin-de-siecle Salonica 8 Chapter 2. Das Volk in Waffen: The Formation of an Ottoman Officer 31 Chapter 3. The Scientism of the Young Turks 48 Chapter 4. From Wars to the Great War: A Hero Is Born 68 Chapter 5. Muslim Communism? The Turkish War of Independence 86 Chapter 6. The Secular Republic 129 Chapter 7. Nationalism and Kemalism 160 Chapter 8. Turkey and the West 199 Conclusion 226 Bibliography 233 Index 255
M. ?ukru Hanio?lu is the Garrett Professor in Foreign Affairs in the Department of Near Eastern Studies at Princeton University. His books include A Brief History of the Late Ottoman Empire (Princeton).
"Fresh and concise."--New Yorker "A significant achievement, and indispensable for anyone seeking to understand the roots of modern Turkey."--Times Higher Education "Ataturk does not lack for biographers, most of whose books are adulatory, but none has so thoroughly brought to life the ideological climate that molded the man as has Hanio?lu. And few have presented Ataturk with such objectivity."--Foreign Affairs "The definitive biography of Ataturk and an instant classic."--Digest of Middle East Studies "Hanio?lu does a stellar job highlighting the scientific trends Ataturk used to validate his Turkish national ideal... Highly recommended."--Library Journal "This work provides the essential intellectual framework to understand Ataturk and the enormity of his accomplishments."--Choice "M. Sukru Hanioglu probes the bold and pragmatic mind of Ataturk in his new book... Hanioglu provides us with a fresh way to look at Ataturk."--Saudi Gazette "Professor Sukru Hanioglu ... combines elegance and meticulousness in Ataturk."--Andrew Mango, Literary Review "Professor Hanioglu's study, based on meticulous research of primary sources, deals with the social setting and intellectual sources that shaped the ideas that have directed Ataturk's actions and policies. The book not only helps demythologize Ataturk, it also provides a most valuable contribution to a better understanding of the state he founded... Ataturk is indispensable reading for anyone who wishes to understand Turkey's politics."--Sahin Alpay, Today's Zaman "M. Sukru Hanioglu's latest book, Ataturk: An Intellectual Biography, is probably the best book on Ataturk's legacy and his historic role... Hanioglu managed to combine both impartiality and immediate access to Turkish sources to produce a classic."--Herkul Millas, Today's Zaman "This book has the potential to inspire a new period of much needed assessment of Ataturk's thought, work and legacy."--Rifat Kandiyoti, Political Quarterly "This book breaks new ground in seeking to determine what Ataturk's reforms actually meant for their creator instead of trying to fit together his policies into a coherent doctrine called Ataturkism, as others have done. It is an important addition to the literature on the republic that Ataturk sought to define, and was determined to create."--Clement Dodd, Journal of Islamic Studies "This book is aimed less at historians of the Ottoman Empire or of Turkey than at a wider public. It is a fine work of synthesis, fully accessible to non-specialists, which takes account of the complexity of the transitional period between the Ottoman Empire and the Republic of Turkey. Hanioglu's line of argument is perfectly clear and his account is easy to follow."--Clelia Delbarre, booksandideas.net "By setting [Ataturk's] remarkable achievements within their historical context, Mr Hanioglu has not only done him a service, he has also provided the reader a better understanding of the contradictions of the fascinating country that is modern Turkey."--Kanika Datta, Business Standard "Professor Hanioglu has developed a well-informed and in-depth theoretical account, perhaps the most successful so far, of the ideological elements that shaped the ideas and mindset of Mustafa Kemal (later Ataturk). Although readers may be tempted to pass over yet another Ataturk biography, I would urge them to read this one... [T]he present study will undoubtedly become an indispensable tool to historians of modern Turkey. It will be widely consulted by anyone seeking to understand not only the historical roots of modern Turkey, but also the present conditions in that society. Professor Hanioglu's essential biography places Ataturk firmly within his historical and intellectual contexts, offering to the public a solid, well-written and comprehensive study."--Nikos Christofis, New Middle Eastern Studies "Hanioglu examines the development of his political philosophy in the context of historical events, allowing for better comparison between Ataturk's accomplishments and other statesmen of his time. Because of the care the author shows in establishing the international context, this book will be of interest to any student of political ideologies and the emergence of nation-states between the wars."--Christianne Gates, History "Teachers of Turkish history in particular will be very grateful for this concise and accessible study of one of the most enduring national leaders of the twentieth century... Hanio?lu's approach to Ataturk is helpful and refreshing."--Gavin D. Brockett, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies