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Table of Contents

Contributors ix

Joseph Loscalzo xv

Eric N. Olson xvii

Section I: Risk Factors: Old and New 1

1 Lipoproteins 3
Ming-Lin Liu and Daniel J. Rader

2 Role of Dysglycemia in Atherosclerosis 15
David R. Clemmons

3 Glycation, Inflammation and RAGE: Mechanisms Contributing to the Accelerated Atherosclerosis of Diabetes 27
Ravichandran Ramasamy, Shi Fang Yan, and Ann Marie Schmidt

4 Inflammation 43
Caitlin Collins, Ellie Tzima, and Cam Patterson

5 Homocysteine: A Controversial Cardiovascular Risk Factor 53
Sanjana Dayal and Steven R. Lentz

6 Hypertension as a Risk Factor for Atherosclerosis 63
Annet Kirabo and David G. Harrison

7 The Genetics of Atherosclerosis: From Polymorphisms to Populations 77
Paul Johnson, Jack Kuritzky, and Marschall Runge

8 Life Style 93
Wayne E. Cascio Section II: Cellular Mechanisms 105

9 Endothelial Cells 107
G. Brandon Atkins, Gabriela Orasanu, and Mukesh K. Jain

10 Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells 117
Dario F. Riascos-Bernal and Nicholas E. S. Sibinga

11 Fibroblasts 129
Christopher Mack

12 Monocytes and Macrophages in Atherosclerosis 141
Shu Meng, Pu Fang, Xiaofeng Yang, and Hong Wang

13 Lymphocytes and Atherosclerosis 155
Anthony Virtue, Jietang Mai, Hong Wang, and Xiaofeng Yang

14 Stem Cells 173
Arjun Deb

15 Platelets 187
Jerry Ware and Adam Corken

16 Development and Use of Mouse Models of Atherosclerosis 197
Peggy Robinet and Jonathan D. Smith Section III: Molecular Mechanisms 207

17 Mechanisms of the Renin Angiotensin System Influencing Atherosclerosis 209
Hong Lu and Alan Daugherty

18 The Role of Caveolae and Caveolins in Atherogenesis 221
Victor Rizzo

19 Lysosomal Molecular Derangements in Atherosclerosis 235
Pin-Lan Li and Yang Zhang

20 C-Reactive Protein and Its Pathophysiological Roles in Atherosclerosis 247
Jianglin Fan, Jifeng Zhang, and Yuqing Eugene Chen

21 Paraoxonases 257
Srinivasa T. Reddy

22 Prostanoids, Their Receptors, and Atherogenesis 267
Domenico Pratico

23 Extracellular Phospholipases: Role in Inflammation and Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease 279
Uwe J.F. Tietge

24 Apolipoprotein-B: The Crucial Protein of Atherogenic Lipoproteins 291
Kevin Jon Williams and Edward A. Fisher

25 HDL Receptor Scavenger Receptor BI: A Multipurpose Player in Cholesterol and Steroid Metabolism in Mice and Man 313
Ying Zhao, Menno Hoekstra, Suzanne J. A. Korporaal, Theo J. C. Van Berkel, and Miranda Van Eck

26 Pro and Anti-Inflammatory Cytokine Networks in Atherosclerosis 329
Michael V. Autieri

27 E CM and Atherosclerosis 343
Jie Du, Ying Wang, and Lixin Jia Section IV: Biochemical Mechanisms 353

28 Effects of Nitric Oxide on Atherosclerosis 355
Terrence Pong and Paul L. Huang

29 Protective Role of Heme Oxygenase-1 in Atherosclerosis 365
William Durante

30 Roles of Reactive Oxygen Species in Physiology and Pathology 379
Ping Song and Ming-Hui Zou

31 Hydrogen Sulfide: Role in Atherosclerosis, Mechanisms, and Therapeutic Potential 393
Elvis A. Peter, Jai Varma, and Christopher G. Kevil

32 Methylation and Atherosclerosis 405
Xin-Yu Xiong, Shu Meng, Xiaofeng Yang, and Hong Wang

33 Micromanaging Atherogenesis: Role of Micrornas in Atherosclerosis 423
Shusheng Wang and Chastain Anderson

34 Posttranslational Modifications: Role in Atherosclerosis 437
Justyna Fert-Bober, Ronald J. Holewinski, Joel A. Kooren, and Jennifer E. Van Eyk

35 Phosphorylation Regulation by Kinases and Phosphatases in Atherosclerosis 453
Katherine J. Elliott and Satoru Eguchi

36 Effect of MMPs on Cardiovasculature and Blood Flow: Role of Ros, Mitophagy, and Antioxidants 467
Thomas P. Vacek, Diana Neamtu, and Suresh C. Tyagi Section V: Clinical Management 479

37 Impact of Preventive Therapies on Clinical Management and Outcomes 481
Danny Eapen, Ahsan Achtchi, Reynaria Nieva, Kiran Valiani, Faresa Zarreen, Aalok Patel, Allen Dollar, Ijeoma Isiadinso, Susmita Parashar, Jefferson Baer, Kreton Mavromatis, and Laurence Sperling

38 Risk Stratification in Clinical Practice 495
Phil Mendys, Golsa Joodi, and Ross J. Simpson, Jr.

39 Molecular Imaging 503
Arun K. Thukkani and Farouc A. Jaffer

40 Pharmacological Therapy in the Management of Acute Coronary Syndromes 517
Andrew J. Sampson, Timir Paul, and George A. Stouffer

41 Targeted Molecular Therapeutics for Atherosclerosis 533
Lantz C. Mackey and Jonathon W. Homeister

42 High-Density Lipoprotein Therapies-Then and Now 545
Henry J. Pownall, Corina Rosales, Baiba K. Gillard, and Antonio M. Gotto, Jr.

43 Stem Cell Therapeutics 557
Mei Mei Wong and Qingbo Xu

44 Advances in Surgical Revascularization 567
Stephen J. Forest, Ahmed Khan, and Joseph J. DeRose, Jr.

Index 579

About the Author

Hong Wang is a professor of pharmacology at Temple University School of Medicine. Her research focuses on mechanisms of vascular disease, using research approaches includinggenetic cloning, molecular biology, protein chemistry and immunohistochemistry. Dr. Wang is the author of numerous publications in peer reviewed journals including Cardiovascular Research, Atherosclerosis, Blood, and Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine.

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