Introduction 1 Section 1: Sample Collection and Handling 2 Collection of Urine Samples 2 Free Catch Urine Collection 2 Transurethral Catheterization 3 Cystocentesis 6 Urine Sample Handlin g 7 Culture 7 Section II: Urine: Physical Characteristics 10 Volume 10 Color 10 Clarity/Turbidity 11 Odor 11 Urine Specific Gravity 11 Section III Urine Chemistry 13 Urine pH 13 Protein 14 Glucose 19 Ketones 20 Blood 22 Bilirubin 24 Section IV Urine Sediment 26 Preparation for Microscopic Examination 26 Casts 27 Hyaline Casts 27 Cellular Casts 28 Granular Casts 30 Waxy Casts 31 Fatty Casts 32 Hemoglobin Casts 32 Mixed Casts 33 Psuedo Casts 33 Crystals 34 Crystals associated with urolith formation34 Struvite/Triple Phosphate Crystals 34 Calcium oxalate dihydrate 35 Calcium oxalate monohydrate 36 Calcium Phosphate 37 Urate/Ammonium Biurate 37 Uric Acid 38 Cystine 39 Xanthine 39 Amorphous (Phosphate, Urate, Silicates) 40 Crystals not typically associated with urolith formation41 Tyrosine and leucine 41 Bilirubin 42 Melamine 42 Drug Induced 43 Sulfonamides 43 Ampicillin 44 Radiopaque Contrast Agents 44 Cholesterol 45 Cells 45 Transitional Epithelial Cells 45 Squamous Epithelial Cells 46 Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells 47 Leukocytes 48 Erythrocytes 49 Atypical (Neoplastic) Cells 50 Organisms51 Bacteria 52 Fungal Hyphae 53 Yeast 54 Dioctophyma renale Ova 54 Capillaria (Pearsonema) plica and Capillaria felis cati Ova 55 Microfilaria 56 Miscellaneous Findings and Artifacts 56 Pollen 56 Fungal spores 57 Mucus 58 Lipid Droplets 58 Sperm 59 Air Bubbles 59 Starch Granules (Glove Powder) 60 Fiber 60
The authors Theresa E. Rizzi, DVM, DACVP (Clinical Pathology), is a Clinical Associate Professor in the Department of Veterinary Pathobiology at Oklahoma State University, Center for Veterinary Health Sciences, in Stillwater, Oklahoma, USA. Amy Valenciano, DVM, MS, DACVP (Clinical Pathology), is a Clinical Pathologist at IDEXX Laboratories in Dallas, Texas, USA. Mary Bowles, DVM, DACVIM, is an emeritus Associate Professor and former Small Animal Medicine Section Chief in the Department of Clinical Sciences at Oklahoma State University, Center for Veterinary Health Sciences in Stillwater, Oklahoma, USA. Rick Cowell, DVM, MS, MRCVS, DACVP (Clinical Pathology), is a Clinical Pathologist at IDEXX Laboratories Inc. in Stillwater, Oklahoma, USA. Ronald Tyler, DVM, PhD, DACVP (Clinical Pathology and Anatomic Pathology), DABT, is consulting pathologist and toxicologist to U.S., European, and Chinese pharmaceutical companies, contract laboratories, and regulatory agencies with adjunct appointments in the Department of Veterinary Pathobiology at Oklahoma State University, Center for Veterinary Health Sciences, in Stillwater, Oklahoma, USA and Department of Pathology, Madras Veterinary College, Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University in Chennai, India. Dennis B. DeNicola, DVM, PhD, DACVP (Clinical Pathology), is Chief Veterinary Educator at IDEXX Laboratories in Westbrook, Maine, USA.
'The book covers all aspects of urinalysis including appropriate collection, storage, preparation of urine for laboratory analysis, and chemical and microscopic evaluation. It presents practical techniques for urine collection, has many images of sediment structures, and helpful tables that summarize information ... This book mirrors those available in human medicine. It is thorough and the images are excellent' Doody's, December 2017