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Beyond BIOS
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Table of Contents

Acknowledgements | v Preface | vii Chapter 1 - Introduction | 1 Terminology | 4 Short History of EFI | 5 EFI Becomes UEFI-The UEFI Forum | 6 PIWG and USWG | 8 Platform Trust/Security | 11 Embedded Systems: The New Challenge | 12 How the Boot Process Differs between a Normal Boot and an Optimized/Embedded Boot | 13 Summary | 14 Chapter 2 - Basic UEFI Architecture | 15 Objects Managed by UEFI-based Firmware | 15 UEFI System Table | 16 Handle Database | 16 Protocols | 18 Working with Protocols | 21 Multiple Protocol Instances | 21 Tag GUID | 21 UEFI Images | 22 Applications | 25 OS Loader | 25 Drivers | 26 Events and Task Priority Levels | 27 Summary | 30 Chapter 3 - UEFI Driver Model | 31 Why a Driver Model Prior to OS Booting? | 31 Driver Initialization | 32 Host Bus Controllers | 33 Device Drivers | 35 Bus Drivers | 36 Platform Components | 38 Hot Plug Events | 38 Pseudo Code | 41 Device Driver | 41 Bus Driver that Creates All of Its Child Handles on the First Call to Start() | 42 Bus Driver that Is Able to Create All or One of Its Child Handles on Each Call to Start(): | 43 Additional Innovations | 47 Security | 47 Manageability | 48 Networking | 49 Summary | 52 Chapter 4 - Protocols You Should Know | 53 EFI OS Loaders | 55 Device Path and Image Information of the OS Loader | 56 Accessing Files in the Device Path of the OS Loader | 57 Finding the OS Partition | 58 Getting the Current System Configuration | 60 Getting the Current Memory Map | 61 Getting Environment Variables | 62 Transitioning to an OS Kernel | 63 Summary | 63 Chapter 5 - UEFI Runtime | 65 Isn't There Only One Kind of Memory? | 66 How Are Runtime Services Exposed? | 69 Time Services | 70 Why Abstract Time? | 70 Get Time | 70 Set Time | 71 Get Wakeup Time | 72 Set Wakeup Time | 72 Virtual Memory Services | 72 Set Virtual Address Map | 73 ConvertPointer | 73 Variable Services | 74 GetVariable | 74 GetNextVariableName | 75 SetVariable | 75 Miscellaneous Services | 77 Reset System | 78 Get Next High Monotonic Count | 79 UpdateCapsule | 79 QueryCapsuleCapabilities | 80 Summary | 80 Chapter 6 - UEFI Console Services | 81 Simple Text Input Protocol | 83 Simple Text Input Ex Protocol | 86 Simple Text Output Protocol | 87 Remote Console Support | 89 Console Splitter | 92 Network Consoles | 93 Summary | 95 Chapter 7 - Different Types of Platforms | 97 Summary | 110 Chapter 8 - DXE Basics: Core, Dispatching, and Drivers | 111 DXE Core | 112 Hand-Off Block (HOB) List | 114 DXE Architectural Protocols | 115 EFI System Table | 117 EFI Boot Services Table | 118 EFI Runtime Services Table | 119 DXE Services Table | 119 Global Coherency Domain Services | 120 GCD Memory Resources | 120 GCD I/O Resources | 122 DXE Dispatcher | 123 The a priori File | 125 Dependency Grammar | 125 DXE Drivers | 126 Boot Device Selection (BDS) Phase | 127 Console Devices | 128 Boot Devices | 129 Boot Services Terminate | 129 Summary | 130 Chapter 9 - Some Common UEFI and PI Functions | 131 Architectural Protocol Examples | 132 CPU Architectural Protocol | 133 Real Time Clock Architectural Protocol | 135 Timer Architectural Protocol | 135 Reset Architectural Protocol | 136 Boot Device Selection Architectural Protocol | 137 Variable Architectural Protocol | 138 Watchdog Timer Architectural Protocol | 138 PCI Protocols | 139 PCI Host Bridge Resource Allocation Protocol | 139 PCI Root Bridge I/O | 143 PCI I/O | 145 Block I/O | 147 Disk I/O | 149 Simple File System | 150 EFI File Protocol | 151 Configuration Infrastructure | 152 Using the Configuration Infrastructure | 153 Driver Model Interactions | 154 Provisioning the Platform | 155 Summary | 156 Chapter 10 - Platform Security and Trust | 157 Trust Overview | 157 Trusted Platform Module (TPM) and Measured Boot | 160 What Is a Trusted Building Block (TBB)? | 163 What Is the Point of Measurements? | 168 UEFI Secure Boot | 169 UEFI Executable Verification | 170 UEFI Networking | 173 UEFI User Identification (UID) | 176 Hardware Evolution: SRTM-to-DRTM | 177 Platform Manufacturer | 178 Vulnerability Classification | 180 Roots of Trust/Guards | 180 Summary | 181 Chapter 11 - Boot Device Selection | 183 Firmware Boot Manager | 185 Related Definitions | 188 Globally-Defined Variables | 188 Default Behavior for Boot Option Variables | 191 Boot Mechanisms | 191 Boot via Simple File Protocol | 192 Boot via LOAD_FILE Protocol | 193 Summary | 194 Chapter 12 - Boot Flows | 195 Defined Boot Modes | 196 Priority of Boot Paths | 196 Reset Boot Paths | 198 Intel (R) Itanium (R) Processor Reset | 198 Non-Power-On Resets | 199 Normal Boot Paths | 199 Basic G0-to-S0 and S0 Variation Boot Paths | 200 S-State Boot Paths | 200 Recovery Paths | 201 Discovery | 201 General Recovery Architecture | 202 Special Boot Path Topics | 203 Special Boot Paths | 203 Special Intel Itanium (R) Architecture Boot Paths | 203 Intel Itanium (R) Architecture Access to the Boot Firmware Volume | 203 Architectural Boot Mode PPIs | 207 Recovery | 207 Discovery | 208 Summary | 208 Chapter 13 - Pre-EFI Initialization (PEI) | 209 Scope | 209 Rationale | 210 Overview | 210 Phase Prerequisites | 212 Temporary RAM | 212 Boot Firmware Volume | 212 Security Primitives | 213 Concepts | 213 PEI Foundation | 213 Pre-EFI Initialization Modules (PEIMs) | 214 PEI Services | 215 PEIM-to-PEIM Interfaces (PPIs) | 215 Simple Heap | 216 Hand-Off Blocks (HOBs) | 216 Operation | 217 Dependency Expressions | 218 Verification/Authentication | 219 PEIM Execution | 219 Memory Discovery | 219 Intel (R) Itanium (R) Processor MP Considerations | 220 Recovery | 220 S3 Resume | 221 The "Terse Executable" and Cache-as-RAM | 222 Example System | 223 Summary | 226 Chapter 14 - Putting It All Together-Firmware Emulation | 227 Virtual Platform | 228 Emulation Firmware Phases | 230 Hardware Pass-Through | 235 Summary | 236 Chapter 15 - Reducing Platform Boot Times | 237 Proof of Concept | 240 Marketing Requirements | 241 What Are the Design Goals? | 242 Platform Policy | 242 What Are the Supported OS Targets? | 243 Do We Have to Support Legacy Operating Systems? | 243 Do We Have to Support Legacy Option ROMs? | 243 Are We Required to Display an OEM Splash Screen? | 244 What Type of Boot Media Is Supported? | 244 What Is the BIOS Recovery/Update Strategy? | 245 When Processing Things Early | 245 Is There a Need for Pre-OS User Interaction? | 246 Additional Details | 246 Adjusting the BIOS to Avoid Unnecessary Drivers | 246 What Is the Boot Target? | 247 Steps Taken in a Normal and Optimized Boot | 247 Loading a Boot Target | 248 Organizing the Flash Effectively | 249 Minimize the Files Needed | 249 Summary | 250 The Primary Adjustments | 250 Suggested Next Steps | 251 Chapter 16 - Embedded Boot Solution | 253 CE Device Landscape | 253 CE Device Boot Challenges | 254 In-Vehicle Infotainment | 256 Other Embedded Platforms | 257 Generic Requirements | 258 Boot Strategies | 259 Power Management | 261 Boot Storage Devices | 261 Security | 263 Manageability | 267 Summary | 268 Chapter 17 - Manageability | 269 Overall Management Framework | 269 Dynamic In-Band | 271 Out-of-Band | 271 Distributed Management Task Force (DMTF) | 271 UEFI Error Format Standardization | 272 UEFI Error Format Overview | 276 Error Record Types | 276 Windows Hardware Error Architecture and the Role of UEFI | 277 Technology Intercepts: UEFI, IPMI, Intel (R) Some Common UEFI and PI Functions | 131 Architectural Protocol Examples | 132 CPU Architectural Protocol | 133 Real Time Clock Architectural Protocol | 135 Timer Architectural Protocol | 135 Reset Architectural Protocol | 136 Boot Device Selection Architectural Protocol | 137 Variable Architectural Protocol | 138 Watchdog Timer Architectural Protocol | 138 PCI Protocols | 139 PCI Host Bridge Resource Allocation Protocol | 139 PCI Root Bridge I/O | 143 PCI I/O | 145 Block I/O | 147 Disk I/O | 149 Simple File System | 150 EFI File Protocol | 151 Configuration Infrastructure | 152 Using the Configuration Infrastructure | 153 Driver Model Interactions | 154 Provisioning the Platform | 155 Summary | 156 Chapter 10 - Platform Security and Trust | 157 Trust Overview | 157 Trusted Platform Module (TPM) and Measured Boot | 160 What Is a Trusted Building Block (TBB)? | 163 What Is the Point of Measurements? | 168 UEFI Secure Boot | 169 UEFI Executable Verification | 170 UEFI Networking | 173 UEFI User Identification (UID) | 176 Hardware Evolution: SRTM-to-DRTM | 177 Platform Manufacturer | 178 Vulnerability Classification | 180 Roots of Trust/Guards | 180 Summary | 181 Chapter 11 - Boot Device Selection | 183 Firmware Boot Manager | 185 Related Definitions | 188 Globally-Defined Variables | 188 Default Behavior for Boot Option Variables | 191 Boot Mechanisms | 191 Boot via Simple File Protocol | 192 Boot via LOAD_FILE Protocol | 193 Summary | 194 Chapter 12 - Boot Flows | 195 Defined Boot Modes | 196 Priority of Boot Paths | 196 Reset Boot Paths | 198 Intel (R) Itanium (R) Processor Reset | 198 Non-Power-On Resets | 199 Normal Boot Paths | 199 Basic G0-to-S0 and S0 Variation Boot Paths | 200 S-State Boot Paths | 200 Recovery Paths | 201 Discovery | 201 General Recovery Architecture | 202 Special Boot Path Topics | 203 Special Boot Paths | 203 Special Intel Itanium (R) Architecture Boot Paths | 203 Intel Itanium (R) Architecture Access to the Boot Firmware Volume | 203 Architectural Boot Mode PPIs | 207 Recovery | 207 Discovery | 208 Summary | 208 Chapter 13 - Pre-EFI Initialization (PEI) | 209 Scope | 209 Rationale | 210 Overview | 210 Phase Prerequisites | 212 Temporary RAM | 212 Boot Firmware Volume | 212 Security Primitives | 213 Concepts | 213 PEI Foundation | 213 Pre-EFI Initialization Modules (PEIMs) | 214 PEI Services | 215 PEIM-to-PEIM Interfaces (PPIs) | 215 Simple Heap | 216 Hand-Off Blocks (HOBs) | 216 Operation | 217 Dependency Expressions | 218 Verification/Authentication | 219 PEIM Execution | 219 Memory Discovery | 219 Intel (R) Itanium (R) Processor MP Considerations | 220 Recovery | 220 S3 Resume | 221 The "Terse Executable" and Cache-as-RAM | 222 Example System | 223 Summary | 226 Chapter 14 - Putting It All Together-Firmware Emulation | 227 Virtual Platform | 228 Emulation Firmware Phases | 230 Hardware Pass-Through | 235 Summary | 236 Chapter 15 - Reducing Platform Boot Times | 237 Proof of Concept | 240 Marketing Requirements | 241 What Are the Design Goals? | 242 Platform Policy | 242 What Are the Supported OS Targets? | 243 Do We Have to Support Legacy Operating Systems? | 243 Do We Have to Support Legacy Option ROMs? | 243 Are We Required to Display an OEM Splash Screen? | 244 What Type of Boot Media Is Supported? | 244 What Is the BIOS Recovery/Update Strategy? | 245 When Processing Things Early | 245 Is There a Need for Pre-OS User Interaction? | 246 Additional Details | 246 Adjusting the BIOS to Avoid Unnecessary Drivers | 246 What Is the Boot Target? | 247 Steps Taken in a Normal and Optimized Boot | 247 Loading a Boot Target | 248 Organizing the Flash Effectively | 249 Minimize the Files Needed | 249 Summary | 250 The Primary Adjustments | 250 Suggested Next Steps | 251 Chapter 16 - Embedded Boot Solution | 253 CE Device Landscape | 253 CE Device Boot Challenges | 254 In-Vehicle Infotainment | 256 Other Embedded Platforms | 257 Generic Requirements | 258 Boot Strategies | 259 Power Management | 261 Boot Storage Devices | 261 Security | 263 Manageability | 267 Summary | 268 Chapter 17 - Manageability | 269 Overall Management Framework | 269 Dynamic In-Band | 271 Out-of-Band | 271 Distributed Management Task Force (DMTF) | 271 UEFI Error Format Standardization | 272 UEFI Error Format Overview | 276 Error Record Types | 276 Windows Hardware Error Architecture and the Role of UEFI | 277 Technology Intercepts: UEFI, IPMI, Intel (R) AMT, WS-MAN | 281 Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI) | 281 Intel (R) Active Management Technology (Intel AMT) | 283 Web Services Management Protocol (WS-MAN) | 285 Other Industry Initiatives | 285 The UEFI/IPMI/Intel (R) AMT/WS-MAN Bridge | 286 IPMI Error Records to UEFI | 287 UEFI Error Records to IPMI | 287 Intel (R) AMT and IPMI | 287 Future Work | 288 Configuration Namespace | 288 Namespace Entries | 292 Summary | 293 Appendix A - Data Types | 295 Appendix B - Status Codes | 297 Index | 301

About the Author

Vincent Zimmer Engineer, WA, USA, Suresh Marisetty Systems Architect, CA, USA, Michael Rothman Engineer,WA, USA

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