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Beyond Feelings


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Table of Contents

Preface Introduction PART I. THE CONTEXT 1. Who Are You?The Influence of Time and PlaceThe Influence of Mass CultureThe "Science" of ManipulationThe Influence of PsychologyBecoming an IndividualApplications 2. What Is Critical Thinking?Mind, Brain, or Both?Critical Thinking DefinedCharacteristics of Critical ThinkersThe Role of IntuitionThe Basic Activities of Critical ThinkingCritical Thinking and WritingCritical Thinking and DiscussionAvoiding PlagiarismApplications 3. What Is Truth?Where Does It All Begin?Imperfect PerceptionImperfect MemoryDeficient InformationEven the Wisest Can ErrTruth Is Discovered, Not CreatedApplications 4. What Does It Mean to Know?Requirements of KnowingTesting Your Own KnowledgeHow We Come to KnowWhy Knowing is DifficultA Cautionary TailIs Faith a Form of KnowledgeObstacles to KnowledgeApplications 5. How Good Are Your Opinions?Opinions Can Be MistakenOpinions on Moral IssuesEven Experts Can Be WrongKinds of ErrorInformed Versus Uninformed OpinionForming Correct OpinionsApplications 6. What Is Evidence?Kinds of EvidenceEvaluating EvidenceWhat Constitutes "Sufficient" Evidence?Applications 7. What Is Argument?The Parts of an ArgumentEvaluating ArgumentsMore Difficult ArgumentsApplications PART II. THE PITFALLS 8. The Basic Problem: "Mine Is Better"Egocentric PeopleEthnocentric PeopleControlling "Mine-Is-Better" ThinkingApplications 9. Errors of PerspectivePoverty of AspectUnwarranted AssumptionsThe Either/Or OutlookMindless ConformityAbsolutismRelativismBias For or Against ChangeApplications 10. Errors of ProcedureBiased Consideration of EvidenceDouble StandardHasty ConclusionOvergeneralization and StereotypingOversimplificationThe Post Hoc FallacyApplications 11. Errors of ExpressionContradictionArguing in a CircleMeaningless StatementMistaken AuthorityFalse AnalogyIrrational AppealApplications 12. Errors of ReactionAutomatic RejectionChanging the SubjectShifting the Burden of Proof"Straw Man"Attacking the CriticApplications 13. The Errors in CombinationErrors of PerspectiveErrors of ProcedureErrors of ExpressionErrors of ReactionSample Combinations of ErrorsA Sensible View of TerminologyApplications PART III. A STRATEGY 14. Knowing YourselfCritical Thinking InventoryUsing Your InventoryChallenge and RewardApplications 15. Being ObservantObserving PeopleObservation in Science and MedicineThe Range of ApplicationBecoming More ObservantReflecting Your ObservationsApplications 16. Selecting an IssueThe Basic Rule: Less Is MoreHow to Limit an IssueSample Issue: PornographySample Issue: BoxingSample Issue: Juvenile CrimeNarrowing the Issue FurtherApplications 17. Conducting InquiryWorking with Inconclusive ResultsWhere to Look for InformationHow Much Inquiry is Enough?Managing Lengthy MaterialApplications 18. Forming a JudgmentEvaluating EvidenceEvaluating Your Sources' ArgumentsMaking Important DistinctionsExpressing JudgmentsApplications 19. Persuading OthersGuidelines for PersuasionAn Unpersuasive PresentationA Persuasive PresentationApplications Notes Index

About the Author

Vincent Ryan Ruggiero is internationally recognized as a pioneer in the movement to make creative and critical thinking central emphases in education and in society. The author of 22 books and over 500 essays, he is Professor of Humanities Emeritus at State University of New York, Delhi.

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