1. The Nutra?Snacks Project: Basic Research and Biotechnological Programs on Nutraceutics Giuseppina Rea, Amina Antonacci, Maya Lambreva, Andrea Margonelli, Cecilia Ambrosi and Maria Teresa Giardi Abstract Rationale of the Nutra?Snacks Project Technological Innovations Conclusion 2. Overview of Diet?Gene Interactions and the Example of Xanthophylls Barbara Demmig?Adams and William W. Adams, III Abstract Introduction: Overview of Diet?Gene Interaction in Human Disease A Case Study: Xanthophylls and Their Synergism with Other Dietary Factors in Human Health—Protection against Eye Disease and Other Chronic Diseases Dietary Sources of Zeaxanthin and Lutein and Their Potential Enhancement 3. Therapeutic Potential of Dietary Polyphenols against Brain Ageing and Neurodegenerative Disorders Giovanni Scapagnini, Calogero Caruso and Vittorio Calabrese Abstract Introduction Curcumin Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester Ethyl Ferulate Epigallocatechin?3?Gallate Conclusion 4. Plant Phenolics in the Prevention and Treatment of Cancer Klaus W.J. Wahle, Iain Brown, Dino Rotondo, and Steven D. Heys Abstract Epidemiology of Plant Foods and Disease Incidence Anticancer Phytochemicals in Foods, Beverages and Spices Classification and Occurrence of Plant Phenolic Compounds Cellular Mechanisms Modified by Plant Phenolics That Can Reduce Carcinogenesis and Tumour Progression Conclusion 5. Endogenous Antioxidants and Radical Scavengers Angela Maria Rizzo, Patrizia Berselli, Stefania Zava, Gigliola Montorfano, Manuela Negroni, Paola Corsetto and Bruno Berra Abstract Introduction Endogenous Antioxidant Molecules Reactive Oxygen Species: Always Bad? Conclusion 6. A Nutritional Strategy for Reducing Disease and Obesity Risks Teresa Lavecchia, Paolo Petroni, Giuseppe Rodio and Riccardo Pina Abstract Introduction The Zone Diet Nutrition Strategy: General Outline Conclusion 7. Dietary Phytochemicals and Human Health Justyna Krzyzanowska, Anna Czubacka and WieslawOleszek Abstract Introduction Carotenoids Phenolic Compounds Phytoestrogens Polyunsatured Fatty Acids Conjugated Linoleic Acids Tocopherols and Tocotrienols Limonene Allicin and Diallyl Disulfide Glucosinolates Capsacinoids Conclusion 8. Bioactive Compounds from Northern Plants Anja Hohtola Abstract Introduction How External Factors Influence the Biosynthesis of Secondary Metabolites Research and Exploitation Examples of Northern Plants Containing Bioactive Compounds Conclusion 9. Nutraceutical Use of Garlic Sulfur?Containing Compounds Eleftherios Touloupakis and Demetrios F. Ghanotakis Abstract Introduction Garlic Chemical Compounds Garlic Biological Activities Alliin and Allicin Garlic Alliinase Garlic Supplements Layered Double Hydroxides Alginates Conclusion 10. Genetic Engineering to Enhance Crop?Based Phytonutrients (Nutraceuticals) to Alleviate Diet?Related Diseases Autar K. Mattoo, Vijaya Shukla, Tahira Fatima, Avtar K. Handa and Surender K. Yachha Abstract Introduction Diet and Human Diseases Phytonutrients and Antiproliferative Activity Genetic Engineering to Improve Nutrient (Nutraceutical) Content in Produce Proteins and Amino Acids Carotenoids Folates Vitamin C (Ascorbate) Polyphenolics Tocopherols Iron Conclusion 11. Perspective for the Use of Genetic Transformants in Order to Enhance the Synthesis of the Desired Metabolites: Engineering Chloroplasts of Microalgae for the Production of Bioactive Compounds Udo Johanningmeier and Dirk Fischer Abstract Introduction Microalgae as Transgenic Bioreactors Genetic Engineering of Plant and Microalgal Chloroplasts Expression of Recombinant Proteins in C. reinhardtii Chloroplasts Application to Food Technology Conclusion 12. Biological Elicitors of Plant Secondary Metabolites: Mode of Action and Use in the Production of Nutraceutics Simone Ferrari Abstract Introduction Biological Elicitors of Defence Responses in Plants Perception and Transduction of General Elicitors Emerging Techniques to Improve
MARIA TERESA GIARDI, PhD, is a Research Manager at the National Council of Research (CNR) in Rome, Italy. Her background is in organic-industrial chemistry, and she has extensive experience in molecular biology; modification of photosystem II to increase its resistance to high temperature and sensitivity to radiation; signal transduction in optical and electrochemical biosensors; protein stabilization and utilization in biosensor design, and analytical procedures in general. She is a referee for the US Department of Agriculture for industrial projects. She has worked in various research institutions and research and development companies both in Europe and the USA. She is a supervisor or coordinator of a number of national and international projects in the field of biosensors: European Agency Life V project, 20xx-2004; a European Space Agency project involving space flight in 2005; a NATO “linkage grant”, dedicated to sensors based on plant and microrganisms. GIUSEPPINA REA, PhD, is a molecular biologist and is on the permanent staff of CNR-IC. She is an expert in the molecular mechanisms involved in plant defense responses and has many years of experience in plant molecular biology, biochemistry, biotechnology and protein engineering techniques. She is project monitor of the CNR project Biotechnological Applications of Oxygenic Photosynthetic Organisms in the Agro-food Field and Space Environment, and the EU projects Multibioplat and Sensbiosyn, aimed at producing bacteria and algae with improved photosynthetic performance to exploit them in biological farms for nutraceutical applications and biosensing elements in biosensor development. Her research activities are mainly focused on Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Rhodobacter sphaeroides. She is advisor to several PhD students in Plant Biotechnology working in the fields of exobiology, nutraceutics and biosensors. BRUNO BERRA, PhD, received his academic degree in Chemistry from the University of Pavia, Italy. He is Professor f.r. of Biochemistry at the University of Milan and works at the Department of Molecular Sciences Applied to Biosystems in the Faculty of Pharmacy. During his active teaching career he taught Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, Nutrition Biochemistry and Cosmetology. His most important research areas include: isolation, fractionation, purification and analysis of glycolipids from brain, extranervous tissues and biological fluids; biochemical diagnosis of sphingolipidosis and follow-up of Gaucher’s patients receiving enzyme replacement therapy; nutritional biochemistry with reference to fats and antioxidants; membrane component studies in spontaneous or induced degenerative processes, with particular reference to solid and tumor cells; skin biochemistry and molecular biology of the skin; and space biology. He is a member of numerous national and international scientific organisations including the Italian Society of Biochemistry (1957-2004), the Italian Society for Fat Research, the International Conference of Biochemistry of Lipids (ICBL), the Euro Fed Lipid, the American Oil Chemist’s Society, and the American Society of Diabetes.