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Table of Contents

Acknowledgments xii Introduction 1 Part I Abortion 9 Introduction 11 1 Abortion and Health Care Ethics 15 John Finnis 2 Abortion and Infanticide 23 Michael Tooley 3 A Defense of Abortion 38 Judith Jarvis Thomson 4 Why Abortion Is Immoral 49 Don Marquis Part II Issues in Reproduction 61 Introduction 63 Assisted Reproduction 69 5 Multiple Gestation and Damaged Babies: God's Will or Human Choice? 71 Gregory Pence 6 Assisted Reproduction in Same Sex Couples 74 Dorothy A. Greenfeld and Emre Seli 7 Rights, Interests, and Possible People 86 Derek Parfit 8 The Ethics of Uterus Transplantation 91 Ruby Catsanos, Wendy Rogers, and Mianna Lotz Prenatal Screening, Sex Selection, and Cloning 103 9 Genetics and Reproductive Risk: Can Having Children Be Immoral? 105 Laura M. Purdy 10 Prenatal Diagnosis and Selective Abortion: A Challenge to Practice and Policy 112 Adrienne Asch 11 Genetic Technology: A Threat to Deafness 127 Ruth Chadwick and Mairi Levitt 12 Sex Selection and Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis The Ethics Committee of the American Society of Reproductive Medicine 136 13 Sex Selection and Preimplantation Diagnosis: A Response to the Ethics Committee of the American Society of Reproductive Medicine 141 Julian Savulescu and Edgar Dahl 14 Conception to Obtain Hematopoietic Stem Cells 144 John A. Robertson, Jeffrey P. Kahn, and John E. Wagner 15 Why We Should Not Permit Embryos to Be Selected as Tissue Donors 152 David King 16 The Moral Status of the Cloning of Humans 156 Michael Tooley Part III Genetic Manipulation 173 Introduction 175 17 Questions about Some Uses of Genetic Engineering 177 Jonathan Glover 18 The Moral Significance of the Therapy-Enhancement Distinction in Human Genetics 189 David B. Resnik 19 Should We Undertake Genetic Research on Intelligence? 199 Ainsley Newson and Robert Williamson 20 In Defense of Posthuman Dignity 208 Nick Bostrom Part IV Life and Death Issues 215 Introduction 217 21 The Sanctity of Life 225 Jonathan Glover 22 Declaration on Euthanasia 235 Sacred Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith Killing and Letting Die 241 23 The Morality of Killing: A Traditional View 243 Germain Grisez and Joseph M. Boyle, Jr. 24 Active and Passive Euthanasia 248 James Rachels 25 Is Killing No Worse Than Letting Die? 252 Winston Nesbitt 26 Why Killing is Not Always Worse - and Sometimes Better - Than Letting Die 257 Helga Kuhse 27 Moral Fictions and Medical Ethics 261 Franklin G. Miller, Robert D. Truog, and Dan W. Brock Severely Disabled Newborns 271 28 When Care Cannot Cure: Medical Problems in Seriously Ill Babies 273 Neil Campbell 29 The Abnormal Child: Moral Dilemmas of Doctors and Parents 285 R. M. Hare 30 Right to Life of Handicapped 290 Alison Davis 31 Conjoined Twins, Embodied Personhood, and Surgical Separation 292 Christine Overall Brain Death 305 32 A Definition of Irreversible Coma 307 Report of the Ad Hoc Committee of the Harvard Medical School to Examine the Definition of Brain Death 33 Are Recent Defences of the Brain Death Concept Adequate? 312 Ari Joffe 34 Is the Sanctity of Life Ethic Terminally Ill? 321 Peter Singer Advance Directives 331 35 Life Past Reason 333 Ronald Dworkin 36 Dworkin on Dementia: Elegant Theory, Questionable Policy 341 Rebecca Dresser Voluntary Euthanasia and Medically Assisted Suicide 351 37 The Note 353 Chris Hill 38 When Self ]Determination Runs Amok 357 Daniel Callahan 39 When Abstract Moralizing Runs Amok 362 John Lachs 40 Trends in End ]of ]Life Practices Before and After the Enactment of the Euthanasia Law in the Netherlands from 1990 to 2010: A Repeated Cross ]Sectional Survey 366 Bregje D. Onwuteaka ]Philipsen, Arianne Brinkman ]Stoppelenburg, Corine Penning, Gwen J. F. de Jong ]Krul, Johannes J. M. van Delden, and Agnes van der Heide 41 Euthanasia in the Netherlands: What Lessons for Elsewhere? 377 Bernard Lo Part V Resource Allocation 381 Introduction 383 42 Rescuing Lives: Can't We Count? 387 Paul T. Menzel 43 Should Alcoholics Compete Equally for Liver Transplantation? 390 Alvin H. Moss and Mark Siegler 44 The Value of Life 397 John Harris 45 Bubbles under the Wallpaper: Healthcare Rationing and Discrimination 406 Nick Beckstead and Toby Ord Part VI Obtaining Organs 413 Introduction 415 46 Organ Donation and Retrieval: Whose Body Is It Anyway? 417 Eike ]Henner W. Kluge 47 The Case for Allowing Kidney Sales 421 Janet Radcliffe ]Richards, A. S. Daar, R. D. Guttmann, R. Hoffenberg, I. Kennedy, M. Lock, R. A. Sells, N. Tilney, and for the International Forum for Transplant Ethics 48 Ethical Issues in the Supply and Demand of Human Kidneys 425 Debra Satz 49 The Survival Lottery 437 John Harris Part VII Experimentation with Human Participants 443 Introduction 445 Human Participants 449 50 Ethics and Clinical Research 451 Henry K. Beecher 51 Equipoise and the Ethics of Clinical Research 459 Benjamin Freedman 52 The Patient and the Public Good 466 Samuel Hellman 53 Scientific Research Is a Moral Duty 471 John Harris 54 Participation in Biomedical Research Is an Imperfect Moral Duty: A Response to John Harris 483 Sandra Shapshay and Kenneth D. Pimple 55 Unethical Trials of Interventions to Reduce Perinatal Transmission of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Developing Countries 489 Peter Lurie and Sidney M. Wolfe 56 We're Trying to Help Our Sickest People, Not Exploit Them 495 Danstan Bagenda and Philippa Musoke ]Mudido 57 Medical Researchers' Ancillary Clinical Care Responsibilities 497 Leah Belsky and Henry S. Richardson Human Embryos - Stem Cells 503 58 President Discusses Stem Cell Research 505 George W. Bush 59 Killing Embryos for Stem Cell Research 508 Jeff McMahan Part VIII Experimentation with Animals 521 Introduction 523 60 Duties towards Animals 527 Immanuel Kant 61 A Utilitarian View 529 Jeremy Bentham 62 All Animals Are Equal 530 Peter Singer 63 Vivisection, Morals and Medicine: An Exchange 540 R. G. Frey and Sir William Paton Part IX Public Health Issues 551 Introduction 553 64 Ethics and Infectious Disease 555 Michael J. Selgelid 65 Rethinking Mandatory HIV Testing during Pregnancy in Areas with High HIV Prevalence Rates: Ethical and Policy Issues 565 Udo Schuklenk and Anita Kleinsmidt 66 Mandatory HIV Testing in Pregnancy: Is There Ever a Time? 572 Russell Armstrong 67 XDR ]TB in South Africa: No Time for Denial or Complacency 582 Jerome Amir Singh, Ross Upshur, and Nesri Padayatchi Part X Ethical Issues in the Practice of Healthcare 591 Introduction 593 Confidentiality 597 68 Confidentiality in Medicine: A Decrepit Concept 599 Mark Siegler 69 The Duty to Warn and Clinical Ethics: Legal and Ethical Aspects of Confidentiality and HIV/AIDS 603 Christian Saf ken and Andreas Frewer Truth-Telling 611 70 On a Supposed Right to Lie from Altruistic Motives 613 Immanuel Kant 71 Should Doctors Tell the Truth? 615 Joseph Collins 72 On Telling Patients the Truth 621 Roger Higgs Informed Consent and Patient Autonomy 629 73 On Liberty 631 John Stuart Mill 74 From Schloendorff v. NewYork Hospital 634 Justice Benjamin N. Cardozo 75 Informed Consent: Its History, Meaning, and Present Challenges 635 Tom L. Beauchamp 76 The Doctor-Patient Relationship in Different Cultures 642 Ruth Macklin 77 Amputees by Choice 654 Carl Elliott 78 Rational Desires and the Limitation of Life ]Sustaining Treatment 665 Julian Savulescu 79 The Nocebo Effect of Informed Consent 683 Shlomo Cohen Part XI Special Issues Facing Nurses 693 Introduction 695 80 The Relation of the Nurse to the Doctor and the Doctor to the Nurse 699 Sarah E. Dock 81 In Defense of the Traditional Nurse 700 Lisa H. Newton 82 Patient Autonomy and Medical Paternity: Can Nurses Help Doctors to Listen to Patients? 708 Sarah Breier 83 Health and Human Rights Advocacy: Perspectives from a Rwandan Refugee Camp 718 Carol Pavlish, Anita Ho, and Ann ]Marie Rounkle Part XII Neuroethics 729 Introduction 731 84 Neuroethics: An Agenda for Neuroscience and Society 733 Jonathan D. Moreno 85 How Electrical Brain Stimulation Can Change the Way We Think 741 Sally Adee 86 Neuroethics: Ethics and the Sciences of the Mind 744 Neil Levy 87 Freedom of Memory Today 749 Adam Kolber 88 Towards Responsible Use of Cognitive ]Enhancing Drugs by the Healthy 753 Henry Greely, Barbara Sahakian, John Harris, Ronald C. Kessler, Michael Gazzaniga, Philip Campbell, and Martha J. Farah 89 Engineering Love 760Julian Savulescu and Anders Sandberg Index 762

About the Author

Helga Kuhse is Adjunct Research Fellow, Centre for Human Bioethics at Monash University. She is the author, co-author or editor of more than 150 professional articles and some 15 books, including The Sanctity-of-Life-Doctrine in Medicine: A Critique (1987), Caring: Nurses, Women and Ethics (1997), Unsanctifying Human Life: Essays on Ethics (2006), and A Companion to Bioethics, 2nd Edition, (2012). Udo Schuklenkholds the Ontario Research Chair in Bioethics and Public Policy at Queen's University at Kingston in Canada. He is a Joint Editor-in-Chief of Bioethics, the journal of the International Association of Bioethics. He is the author, co-author or editor of 160 contributions in journals and anthologies and 7 books including 50 Voices of Disbelief: Why We Are Atheists 2009), The Bioethics Reader (2007) and 50 Great Myths About Atheism (2013). Peter Singer is Ira W. DeCamp Professor of Bioethics at Princeton University and Laureate Professor at the University of Melbourne. He is the author, co-author, or editor of more than 40 books, including Animal Liberation (first published in 1975), widely credited with triggering the modern animal-rights movement, Practical Ethics (third edition, 2011), In Defense of Animals: The Second Wave (2005), and The Life You Can Save (2009). In 2005, Time named him one of the 100 most influential people in the world.An Australian, in 2012 he was made a Companion to the Order of Australia, his country?s highest civilian honour.


Praise for the Previous Edition "The field of bioethics continues to evolve at a breakneck pace. One could hardly ask for a more thorough guide to where it has been, and what values and principles might steer where it is going, than this comprehensive and balanced volume." Arthur Caplan, University of Pennsylvania "This is an outstanding collection which covers all the main issues in bioethics and brings together much of the best philosophical work on them." Dan W. Brock, Harvard Medical School "A useful tool to gain an overview of important and influential texts and thinking of leading authors and commentators in bioethics." Human Reproduction and Genetic Ethics "This remains the definitive collection in bioethics--chock full of interesting, worthwhile articles--both old and new. The anthology has a nice mix of classic and more recent topics of interest." J. Jeremy Wisnewski, Editor, Review Journal of Political Philosophy

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