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Biogeography and Ecology in New Zealand


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Table of Contents

Chapters'Contents.- I. The geological history of New Zealand and its biota.- Bathymetry and structure.- New Zealand and Gondwanaland.- Early Paleozoic.- The New Zealand geosyncline.- Permian biogeography.- Triassic.- Lower Jurassic (Liassic).- Middle and Upper Jurassic.- The Rangitata orogeny and the disruption of Gondwanaland.- Cretaceous.- Cenozoic.- Paleocene.- Eocene.- Oligocene.- Lower Miocene.- Middle and Upper Miocene.- Pliocene.- Early Pleistocene.- Late Pleistocene.- Conditions during Glacial stages.- Origin of alpine biota.- Interglacial climates.- Post-Glacial (Holocene) history.- The coming of man.- Biogeographic elements.- The fossil records and its defects.- Attempt at biogeographic synthesis.- Epilogue.- Acknowledgements.- References.- Postscript.- II. The climate.- The broad-scale atmospheric environment of New Zealand.- Energy balance.- Wind circulation and barometric pressure patterns.- Temperature of the air at sea level.- Temperature in the upper air.- Large scale transient features of the circulation.- Small scale disturbances, weather distribution.- Meteorological situations.- Elements of the surface climate of New Zealand.- General.- Solar radiation and sunshine.- Sunshine duration.- Reflectivity, net radiation.- Precipitation.- Variability of precipitation.- Evaporation and evapotranspiration, water balance and agricultural drought.- Snow.- Relative humidity, dew and fog.- Surface wind.- Air temperature.- Frost.- Visibility, air pollution, atmospheric chemistry.- Long term climate fluctuations and trends.- Mountain and local climates and microclimates.- Bioclimatology in New Zealand.- Climate and the distribution of plants.- Climate and agricultural and forest productivity.- Aerial transport of organisms.- Fungal disease, animal health and climate.- Weather catastrophes.- Conclusion.- Acknowledgement.- References.- III. The distribution and properties of soils, and their biota.- Distribution and properties of New Zealand soils.- Brown-grey earths.- Yellow-grey earths.- Yellow-brown earths.- Podzolised yellow-brown earths and podzols.- Gley podzols.- Rendzinas and rendzic inter grades.- Yellow-brown sands.- Yellow-brown pumice soils.- Yellow-brown loams.- Red and brown loams, and brown granular loams and clays.- Organic soils.- Gley soils.- Recent soils.- Steepl and soils.- Plants nutrients in New Zealand soils.- The changing soil.- Influence of the Maori.- Influence of the European.- Distribution and ecology of the soil biota.- The microflora.- The microfauna.- The macrofauna.- Acknowledgements.- References.- IV. Flora and Vegetation.- Relationships of the flora.- Life forms and leaves.- Flowers and fruits.- Coastal plants.- The forests.- General.- Conifer mixed-hardwood forests.- Beech forests.- Exotic conifer forests.- Scrub and timberline.- The grasslands.- General.- Short-tussock grassland.- Tall-tussock grassland.- Non-indigenous grasslands.- Swamps and bogs.- Alpine vegetation.- Adventive plants.- The outlying islands.- Acknowledgements.- References.- V. The amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals.- The amphibians.- The reptiles.- Composition of the reptile fauna.- Endemic reptiles of special interest.- Origin of the New Zealand lizards.- Evolutionary trends within the New Zealand region.- Distribution and ecology of New Zealand lizards.- The birds.- Composition of the avifauna.- Endemic birds of special interest.- Origins of the avifauna.- Evolutionary trends within the New Zealand region.- Distribution and ecology of New Zealand birds.- The mammals.- Composition of the mammal fauna.- Endemic mammals of special interest.- Distribution and ecology of New Zealand mammals.- Recent changes in the vertebrate fauna.- Acknowledgements.- Addenda.- References.- VI. The freshwater fishes.- Family Geotriidae.- Family Retropinnidae.- Family Prototroctidae.- Family Galaxiidae.- Family Anguillidae.- Family Pleuronectidae.- Family Eleotridae.- Family Mugiloididae.- Food of the freshwater fishes.- A zoogeographic synthesis.- Ecological zoogeography.- Historical zoogeography.- References.- VII. The kiwi.- Discovery.- Description.- Calls.- Classification and the geographical distribution of races.- Evolution and affinities.- Ratites and their relationships.- Anatomy.- Physiology.- Longevity.- Displays.- Breeding biology.- Food habits.- Parasites and diseases.- Predators.- Acknowledgements.- References.- VIII. The tuatara.- Evolutionary position.- `Primitive' and adaptive features.- Distribution and status.- Habitat and Ecology.- References.- IX. The marine benthic ecology and biogeography.- Bathymetry.- The New Zealand continental shelf.- The archibenthal and abyssal regions.- Oceanography.- Currents and convergences.- Surface water masses.- Subsurface water masses.- Biogeographical nomenclature.- Distribution patterns and relationships of selected groups.- Marine algae.- Scleractinia corals.- Gammarid amphipods.- Brachyura.- Echinodermata.- Internal distribution patterns - general conclusions.- The past history of the fauna.- External relationships - general conclusions.- References.- X. The limnology.- Early investigations.- Lakes.- Temperature relationships.- Light penetration.- Chemical characteristics.- Plankton.- Phytoplankton.- Zooplankton.- Littoral and benthic regions.- Productivity and trophic status.- Ponds.- Springs and subterranean waters.- Rivers and streams.- Relationships with other countries.- Conclusion.- Acknowledgements.- References.- XI. The land snail fauna.- Relationship of New Zealand to Indo-Pacific land snail faunal zones.- The age and origins of the New Zealand land snail fauna.- The present state of New Zealand land snail systematics.- Composition of the New Zealand land snail fauna.- Detailed Examination of the land Snail Families.- Hydrocenidae.- Assimineidae.- Liareidae.- Athoracophoridae.- Succineidae.- Achatinellidae.- Bulimulidae.- Paryphantidae.- Punctidae.- New Zealand's geological history and land snail faunal zones.- The subterranean molluscan fauna of New Zealand.- References.- XII. The spiders and harvestmen.- Spiders and harvestmen.- The distribution of harvestmen and spiders within New Zealand.- Relationships of the New Zealand fauna.- Ecology.- Subalpine and alpine.- Riverbeds.- Seashore.- Forest.- References.- XIII. The terrestrial insects.- The New Zealand insect fauna.- Endemism.- Relationships.- Shore Insects.- Ground-dwelling and soil insects.- Insects of dead wood and fungi.- Cave and ground-water insects.- Alpine insects.- Moss insects.- Insects associated with vertebrates.- Endoparasitic insects.- Acknowledgements.- References.- XIV. The freshwater insects.- Ephemeroptera.- Plecoptera.- Odonata.- Megaloptera.- Mecoptera.- Trichoptera.- Chironomidae.- Blepharoceridae.- Simuliidae.- Thaumaleidae.- Coleoptera.- Population comparisons.- References.- XV. The insects in relation to plants.- Abstract.- Some characteristics of insect-hostplant associations in new zealand.- Associations involving warm-temperate plant genera.- Associations involving plant genera not restricted to warm-tem- perate communities.- Differences between north and south island, and between these and outlying islands.- Differences between New Zealand and elsewhere.- Some characteristic phytophage types in New Zealand.- Defoliators.- Flower, fruit and seed-eating insects.- Gallmakers.- Miners.- Live stem borers and shoot apex destroyers.- New Zealand phytophages as botanists.- The adventive flora and fauna.- Pollinators.- References.- XVI. Adaptation and change in maori culture.- The origins of the maori.- Ultimate origins.- Oceanic origins.- Polynesian origins.- East Polynesian adaptation.- New Zealand East Polynesian culture.- Multiple origins or cultural isolation.- Archaic economic adaptation.- Archaic cultural adaptation.- Archaic phases and periods.- New Zealand Maori culture.- Background.- Maori economic adaptation.- Maori cultural adaptation.- Maori culture phases and periods.- Summary.- Conclusion.- References.- XVII. The influence of man on the biota.

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