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Since Europeans first encountered Native Americans, problems relating to language and text translation have been an issue. Translators needed to create the tools for translation, such as dictionaries, still a difficult undertaking today. Although the fact that many Native languages do not share even the same structures or classes of words as European languages has always made translation difficult, translating cultural values and perceptions into the idiom of another culture renders the process even more difficult. In Born in the Blood, noted translator and writer Brian Swann gathers some of the foremost scholars in the field of Native American translation to address the many and varied problems and concerns surrounding the process of translating Native American languages and texts. The essays in this collection address such important questions as, what should be translated? how should it be translated? who should do translation? and even, should the translation of Native literature be done at all? This volume also includes translations of songs and stories.
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Table of Contents

IntroductionBrian Swann Part One1. Should Translation Work Take Place? Ethical Questions Concerning the Translation of First Nations LanguagesCarrie Dyck2. Reading a Dictionary: How Passamaquoddy Language Translates Concepts of Physical and Social SpaceRobert M. Leavitt3. Translating Time: A Dialogue on Hopi Experiences of the PastChip Colwell-Chanthaphonh and Stewart B. Koyiyumptewa4. Hopi Place Value: Translating a LandscapePeter M. Whiteley5. Related-Language Translation: Naskapi and East CreeBill Jancewicz6. Performative Translation and Oral Curation: Ti-Jean/Chezan in BeaverlandAmber Ridington and Robin Ridington7. Translation and Censorship of Native American Oral LiteratureWilliam M. Clements8. In the Words of Powhatan: Translation across Space and Time for The New WorldBlair A. Rudes Part Two9. Ethnopoetic Translation in Relation to Audio, Video, and New Media RepresentationsRobin Ridington, Jillian Ridington, Patrick Moore, Kate Hennessy, and Amber Ridington10. Translating Algonquian Oral TextsJulie Brittain and Marguerite MacKenzie11. Translating the Boundary between Life and Death in O'odham Devil SongsDavid L. Kozak with David I. Lopez12. Revisiting Haida Cradle-Song 67Frederick H. White13. Translating Tense and Aspect in Tlingit NarrativesRichard L. Dauenhauer and Nora Marks Dauenhauer14. Translating Performance in the Written Text: Verse Structure in Dakota and HocakLynn Burley15. Toward Literature: Preservation of Artistic Effects in Choctaw TextsMarcia Haag16. Translating an Esoteric Idiom: The Case of Aztec PoetryJohn Bierhorst17. Translating Context and Situation: William Strachey and Powhatan's "Scorneful Song"William M. Clements18. A Life in TranslationRichard J. Preston19. Memories of Translation: Looking for the Right WordsM. Terry Thompson and Laurence C. Thompson ContributorsIndex

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An anthology of essays on the translation of Native American languages and literatures.

About the Author

Brian Swann is a professor of English at the Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art in New York City. His many publications include Algonquian Spirit: Contemporary Translations of the Algonquian Literatures of North America and Wearing the Morning Star: Native American Song-Poems, both available in Bison Books editions. Contributors: John Bierhorst, Julie Brittain, Lynn Burley, Chip Colwell-Chanthaphonh, William M. Clements, Nora Marks Dauenhauer, Richard L. Dauenhauer, Carrie Dyck, Marcia Haag, Kate Hennessy, Bill Jancewitz, Stewart B. Koyiyumptewa, David Kozak, Robert M. Leavitt, David I. Lopez, Marguerite MacKenzie, Patrick Moore, Richard J. Preston, Amber Ridington, Jillian Ridington, Robin Ridington, Blair A. Rudes, Brian Swann, Laurence C. Thompson, M. Terry Thompson, Frederick White, and Peter M. Whiteley.

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