FOREWORD. PREFACE. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. 1 BROADBAND ACCESS TECHNOLOGIES: AN OVERVIEW. 1.1 Communication Networks. 1.2 Access Technologies. 1.2.1 Last-Mile Bottleneck. 1.2.2 Access Technologies Compared. 1.3 Digital Subscriber Line. 1.3.1 DSL Standards. 1.3.2 Modulation Methods. 1.3.3 Voice over DSL. 1.4 Hybrid Fiber Coax. 1.4.1 Cable Modem. 1.4.2 DOCSIS. 1.5 Optical Access Networks. 1.5.1 Passive Optical Networks. 1.5.2 PON Standard Development. 1.5.3 WDM PONs. 1.5.4 Other Types of Optical Access Networks. 1.6 Broadband over Power Lines. 1.6.1 Power-Line Communications. 1.6.2 BPL Modem. 1.6.3 Challenges in BPL. 1.7 Wireless Access Technologies. 1.7.1 Wi-Fi Mesh Networks. 1.7.2 WiMAX Access Networks. 1.7.3 Cellular Networks. 1.7.4 Satellite Systems. 1.7.5 LMDS and MMDS Systems. 1.8 Broadband Services and Emerging Technologies. 1.8.1 Broadband Access Services. 1.8.2 Emerging Technologies. 1.9 Summary. References. 2 OPTICAL COMMUNICATIONS: COMPONENTS AND SYSTEMS. 2.1 Optical Fibers. 2.1.1 Fiber Structure. 2.1.2 Fiber Mode. 2.1.3 Fiber Loss. 2.1.4 Fiber Dispersion. 2.1.5 Nonlinear Effects. 2.1.6 Light-Wave Propagation in Optical Fibers. 2.2 Optical Transmitters. 2.2.1 Semiconductor Lasers. 2.2.2 Optical Modulators. 2.2.3 Transmitter Design. 2.3 Optical Receivers. 2.3.1 Photodetectors. 2.3.2 Optical Receiver Design. 2.4 Optical Amplifiers. 2.4.1 Rare-Earth-Doped Fiber Amplifiers. 2.4.2 Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers. 2.4.3 Raman Amplifiers. 2.5 Passive Optical Components. 2.5.1 Directional Couplers. 2.5.2 Optical Filters. 2.6 System Design and Analysis. 2.6.1 Receiver Sensitivity. 2.6.2 Power Budget. 2.6.3 Dispersion Limit. 2.7 Optical Transceiver Design for TDM PONs. 2.7.1 Burst-Mode Optical Transmission. 2.7.2 Colorless ONUs. 2.8 Summary. References. 3 PASSIVE OPTICAL NETWORKS: ARCHITECTURES AND PROTOCOLS. 3.1 PON Architectures. 3.1.1 Network Dimensioning and Bandwidth. 3.1.2 Power Budget. 3.1.3 Burst-Mode Operation. 3.1.4 PON Packet Format and Encapsulation. 3.1.5 Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation, Ranging, and Discovery. 3.1.6 Reliability and Security Concerns. 3.2 PON Standards History and Deployment. 3.2.1 Brief Developmental History. 3.2.2 FTTx Deployments. 3.3 Broadband PON. 3.3.1 BPON Architecture. 3.3.2 BPON Protocol and Service. 3.3.3 BPON Transmission Convergence Layer. 3.3.4 BPON Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation. 3.3.5 Other ITU-T G.983.x Recommendations. 3.4 Gigabit-Capable PON. 3.4.1 GPON Physical Medium?Dependent Layer. 3.4.2 GPON Transmission Convergence Layer. 3.4.3 Recent G.984 Series Standards, Revisions, and Amendments. 3.5 Ethernet PON. 3.5.1 EPON Architecture. 3.5.2 EPON Point-to-Multipoint MAC Control. 3.5.3 Open Implementations in EPON. 3.5.4 Unresolved Security Weaknesses. 3.6 IEEE 802.av-2009 10GEPON Standard. 3.6.1 10GEPON PMD Architecture. 3.6.2 10GEPON MAC Modifications. 3.6.3 10GEPON Coexistence Options. 3.7 Next-Generation Optical Access System Development in the Standards. 3.7.1 FSAN NGA Road Map. 3.7.2 Energy Efficiency. 3.7.3 Other Worldwide Development. 3.8 Summary. References. 4 NEXT-GENERATION BROADBAND OPTICAL ACCESS NETWORKS. 4.1 TDM-PON Evolution. 4.1.1 EPON Bandwidth Enhancements. 4.1.2 GPON Bandwidth Enhancements. 4.1.3 Line Rate Enhancements Research. 4.2 WDM-PON Components and Network Architectures. 4.2.1 Colorless ONUs. 4.2.2 Tunable Lasers and Receivers. 4.2.3 Spectrum-Sliced Broadband Light Sources. 4.2.4 Injection-Locked FP Lasers. 4.2.5 Centralized Light Sources with RSOAs. 4.2.6 Multimode Fiber. 4.3 Hybrid TDM/WDM-PON. 4.3.1 TDM-PON to WDM-PON Evolution. 4.3.2 Hybrid Tree Topology Evolution. 4.3.3 Tree to Ring Topology Evolution. 4.4 WDM-PON Protocols and Scheduling Algorithms. 4.4.1 MAC Protocols. 4.4.2 Scheduling Algorithms. 4.5 Summary. References. 5 HYBRID OPTICAL WIRELESS ACCESS NETWORKS. 5.1 Wireless Access Technologies. 5.1.1 IEEE 802.16 WiMAX. 5.1.2 Wireless Mesh Networks. 5.2 Hybrid Optical?Wireless Access Network Architecture. 5.2.1 Leveraging TDM-PON for Smooth Upgrade of Hierarchical Wireless Access Networks. 5.2.2 Upgrading Path. 5.2.3 Reconfigurable Optical Backhaul Architecture. 5.3 Integrated Routing Algorithm for Hybrid Access Networks. 5.3.1 Simulation Results and Performance Analysis. 5.4 Summary. References. INDEX.
Leonid G. Kazovsky, PhD, is a professor in the Department ofElectrical Engineering at Stanford University. He is a Fellow ofthe Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and aFellow of the Optical Society of America (OSA). He is the founderand director of the Photonic and Networking Research Laboratory andis recognized for his outstanding research contributions tocoherent optical communications and optical access networks. Ning Cheng, PhD, is a senior engineer at a majortechnology company as well as the author of more than sixtytechnical papers in electrical engineering. He served as apostdoctoral research fellow at Stanford University. Wei-Tao Shaw, PhD, is currently a member of the technicalstaff at Infinera Inc. During his time at Stanford University, heworked in the Photonics and Networking Research Lab where hefocused on optical access networks and subsystems, and hybridoptical and wireless access networks. David Gutierrez, PhD, currently advises the ColombianMinistry of Information Technologies and Communications. While atStanford University, his research focused on next-generation accessnetworks. His work has been published in many scientific journalsand conference proceedings. Shing-Wa Wong, PhD, graduated with a degree in electricalengineering from Stanford University. He has published more thantwenty-five IEEE journal and conference publications and obtainedthree patents in next-generation broadband networks.