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Bulk Solids Handling
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Table of Contents

1 Characterization, Flow and Storage.- 1 The nature of bulk solids.- 1.1 Introduction.- 1.2 Sampling.- 1.2.1 Obtaining a gross sample.- 1.2.2 Preparing laboratory and test samples.- 1.3 Voidage and bulk density.- 1.4 Particle density.- 1.5 Particle size.- 1.5.1 Definition of `size' and `size distribution'.- 1.5.2 Measurement of particle size.- 1.6 Particle shape.- 1.7 Surface area.- 1.8 Particle hardness.- 1.9 Cohesion and adhesion.- 1.9.1 Angle of repose.- 1.9.2 Shear strength.- 1.9.3 The shear cell as a means of determining shear strength.- 1.9.4 Wall friction.- 1.9.5 Measurement of wall friction.- 1.9.6 Arching phenomena.- 1.10 Moisture content.- 1.11 Explosiveness.- 1.12 Notation.- References and bibliography.- 2 Gravity flow of bulk solids.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 Pressure distribution in a bulk solid.- 2.2.1 Bulk solid at rest.- 2.2.2 The effect of flow on the pressure distribution.- 2.3 Flow of bulk solids from hoppers.- 2.3.1 Introduction.- 2.3.2 Core flow.- 2.3.3 Mass flow.- 2.3.4 Obstructions to gravity flow.- 2.3.5 Predicting the solids discharge rate.- 2.4 Flow of bulk solids in chutes.- 2.4.1 Introduction.- 2.4.2 Flow patterns in straight inclined chutes.- 2.4.3 Flow patterns in curved chutes.- 2.4.4 Chute design.- 2.5 Flow of bulk solids in vertical pipes.- 2.5.1 Introduction.- 2.5.2 Mode of flow.- 2.5.3 Flow control-J-valves and L-valves.- 2.6 Notation.- References and bibliography.- 3 Dynamics of fluid/solids systems.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Flow through beds of fixed particles.- 3.2.1 Characteristics of flow in porous media.- 3.2.2 The prediction of pressure-drop across a fixed particulate bed.- 3.3 Settling behaviour of particles.- 3.3.1 Motion of a spherical particle settling in a stationary fluid.- 3.3.2 The settling of non-spherical particles.- 3.3.3 The settling of concentrations of particles (hindered settling).- 3.3.4 Classification and sorting of particles.- 3.4 Fluidization.- 3.4.1 The fluidization process.- 3.4.2 The prediction of minimum fluidizing velocity.- 3.4.3 Entrainment of particles from a fluidized bed.- 3.4.4 The porous membrane, or distributor.- 3.4.5 The influence of particle size and density.- 3.5 Spouted bed behaviour.- 3.6 Gas/solids flow in pipes.- 3.6.1 Introduction.- 3.6.2 The flow of gas/solids suspensions in horizontal pipes.- 3.6.3 The flow of gas/solids suspensions in vertical pipes.- 3.6.4 Flow around 90 Degrees bends.- 3.6.5 The prediction of pressure-drop in flowing gas/solids suspensions.- 3.7 Liquid/solids flow in pipes.- 3.7.1 Flow characteristics of liquid/solids mixtures (slurries).- 3.7.2 Non-Newtonian flow models for homogeneous suspension.- 3.7.3 The modelling of heterogeneous suspensions.- 3.8 Notation.- References and bibliography.- 4 The design of storage bins and hoppers.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Hopper geometry.- 4.2.1 Shape.- 4.2.2 Overall dimensions.- 4.3 Outlet size and cone angle.- 4.3.1 Jenike's `flow-no flow' criterion.- 4.3.2 Flow Functions and flow factors.- 4.3.3 Outlet dimension and cone angle.- 4.4 Period of storage and time consolidation effects.- 4.4.1 Caking.- 4.4.2 Testing for time consolidation.- 4.4.3 Practical ways of minimizing time consolidation.- 4.5 The effect of moisture.- 4.6 Overcoming space limitations.- 4.6.1 The use of low-friction linings.- 4.6.2 Changing hopper shape.- 4.7 Structural design.- 4.8 Control and measurement of discharge rate.- 4.9 Feeders.- 4.9.1 Introduction.- 4.9.2 Belt feeders.- 4.9.3 Apron feeders and rotary feeders.- 4.9.4 Rotary table feeders.- 4.9.5 Screw feeders.- 4.9.6 Vibratory feeders.- 4.10 Discharge aids.- 4.10.1 Introduction.- 4.10.2 Pneumatic methods.- 4.10.3 Vibrational methods.- 4.10.4 Mechanical methods.- 4.11 Notation.- References and bibliography.- 5 Dust control.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 Dust as a hazard to health.- 5.2.1 Dust particle size.- 5.2.2 Dust concentration limits.- 5.3 Dust suppression.- 5.3.1 Elimination of dust.- 5.3.2 Control of dust dispersion.- 5.4 Gravity and inertial separators.- 5.5 Air cleaners-cyclones.- 5.5.1 Principle of operation.- 5.5.2 Prediction of collecting efficiency.- 5.5.3 Prediction of pressure-drop.- 5.5.4 Cyclone selection.- 5.6 Air cleaners-wet washers or scrubbers.- 5.6.1 Principle of operation.- 5.6.2 Low pressure-drop wet washers.- 5.6.3 High pressure-drop wet washers.- 5.7 Air cleaners-filters.- 5.7.1 Mechanism of filtration.- 5.7.2 Filter media.- 5.7.3 Bag filters-design and selection.- 5.7.4 Filter cleaning.- 5.8 Air cleaners-electrostatic precipitators.- 5.9 Notation.- References and bibliography.- 6 Explosion hazards.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 Characteristics of dust explosions.- 6.2.1 Ignition.- 6.2.2 Explosibility limits.- 6.2.3 Expansion effects and explosion pressures.- 6.3 Measurement of explosion parameters.- 6.4 Explosion risks and system design.- 6.4.1 Minimizing sources of ignition and prevention of ignition.- 6.4.2 Containment.- 6.4.3 Explosion relief venting.- 6.4.4 Detection and suppression.- 6.5 Static electricity.- 6.6 Conclusion.- References and bibliography.- 2 Mechanical Handling.- 7 Belt conveyors.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.2 Features of belt conveyors.- 7.2.1 Belt construction.- 7.2.2 Idlers.- 7.2.3 Drive arrangements.- 7.2.4 The power unit.- 7.2.5 Loading and discharge arrangements.- 7.2.6 Belt cleaners.- 7.3 Belt conveyor design.- 7.3.1 The bulk solid to be transported.- 7.3.2 Belt speed.- 7.3.3 Belt width.- 7.3.4 Belt tension.- 7.3.5 Idler spacing.- 7.3.6 Power requirements.- 7.4 Belt conveyor variants.- 7.4.1 The cable belt conveyor.- 7.4.2 Belt conveyors without idlers.- 7.4.3 Closed-belt or pipe conveyors.- 7.4.4 Sandwich belts.- 7.5. Notation.- References and bibliography.- 8 Bucket elevators.- 8.1 Introduction.- 8.2 Principal types of bucket elevator.- 8.2.1 Centrifugal discharge elevators.- 8.2.2 Continuous bucket elevators.- 8.2.3 Pivoted buckets.- 8.2.4 Profiled-belt elevators.- 8.3 Design and selection of bucket elevators.- 8.3.1 Design features.- 8.3.2 Loading.- 8.3.3 Discharge.- 8.3.4 Capacity.- 8.3.5 Driving power.- 8.4 Notation.- References and bibliography.- 9 Chain and flight conveyors.- 9.1 Introduction.- 9.2 Drag conveyors.- 9.3 En-masse conveyors.- 9.3.1 Design features.- 9.3.2 Performance calculations.- 9.3.3 Applications of en-masse conveying.- 9.4 Tubular drag conveyors.- 9.5 Apron conveyors.- 9.6 Aerial ropeways.- 9.7 Notation.- References and bibliography.- 10 Screw conveying.- 10.1 Introduction.- 10.2 Principle of operation of screw conveyors.- 10.3 The enclosed screw or `auger' conveyor.- 10.3.1 Constructional features.- 10.3.2 Prediction of the performance of an auger conveyor.- 10.4 The industrial screw conveyor or `U-trough' conveyor.- 10.4.1 Constructional features.- 10.4.2 The conveyed product.- 10.4.3 Conveyor selection.- 10.4.4 Conveyor power.- 10.4.5 Inclined screw conveyors.- 10.5 Vertical screw conveyors.- 10.6 Conclusion.- 10.7 Notation.- References and bibliography.- 11 Vibratory conveyors.- 11.1 Introduction.- 11.2 Movement of a bulk solid in a vibrating trough.- 11.2.1 The motion of the trough.- 11.2.2 The motion of bulk material in the trough.- 11.2.3 Average conveying velocity.- 11.2.4 The influence of the design parameters.- 11.2.5 Two-phase trough motion.- 11.3 Design features.- 11.3.1 Drive mechanism.- 11.3.2 Mounting systems.- 11.4 Applications of vibratory conveying.- 11.5 Spiral elevators.- 11.6 Notation.- References and bibliography.- 3 Pneumatic and Hydraulic Transport.- 12 Basic pneumatic conveying systems.- 12.1 Introduction.- 12.2 Modes of conveying-dilute-phase and dense-phase.- 12.3 Low-pressure pneumatic conveying systems.- 12.3.1 Positive-pressure systems.- 12.3.2 Negative-pressure (vacuum) systems.- 12.3.3 Combined negative/positive pressure systems.- 12.4 High-pressure systems.- 12.4.1 General features.- 12.4.2 Single blow tank systems.- 12.4.3 Twin blow tanks and continuously operating systems.- 12.4.4 Long-distance conveying.- 12.5 Low-velocity conveying and the use of supplementary air feeds.- 12.5.1 General features.- 12.5.2 Plug-forming systems.- 12.5.3 Plug-limiting systems.- 12.5.4 Air-injection and booster systems.- References and bibliography.- 13 Components of pneumatic conveying systems.- 13.1 Introduction.- 13.2 The air supply.- 13.2.1 General requirements.- 13.2.2 Fans and turbo-blowers.- 13.2.3 Roots-type blowers.- 13.2.4 Sliding-vane rotary compressors.- 13.2.5 Screw compressors.- 13.2.6 Reciprocating compressors.- 13.2.7 Vacuum pumps.- 13.3 Feeding devices.- 13.3.1 Rotary valves.- 13.3.2 Screw feeders.- 13.3.3 Venturi feeders.- 13.3.4 Gate lock valves.- 13.3.5 Blow tanks.- 13.3.6 Entrainment devices for vacuum systems.- 13.4 The pipeline.- 13.5 Disengaging and collecting devices.- 13.6 Notation.- References and bibliography.- 14 Pneumatic conveyor design.- 14.1 Introduction.- 14.2 General design procedure.- 14.2.1 Conveying velocity and volumetric air flow rate.- 14.2.2 Solids mass flowrate and solids loading ratio.- 14.2.3 Pipeline diameter.- 14.2.4 Pressure-drop.- 14.2.5 Stepped pipelines.- 14.2.6 Selection of the air mover.- 14.3 Summary of preliminary design procedure for dilute-phase systems.- 14.4 Designing from available test data.- 14.4.1 Conveying characteristics.- 14.4.2 Scaling for pipe size and conveying distance.- 14.5 Notation.- References and bibliography.- 15 Air-assisted gravity conveying.- 15.1 Introduction.- 15.2 The flow of fluidised solids.- 15.3 Practical air-assisted gravity conveying.- 15.4 Design parameters for air-gravity conveyors.- 15.4.1 Slope of channel.- 15.4.2 Conveying distance.- 15.4.3 Width of conveying channel.- 15.4.4 Air requirement.- 15.5 Properties of bulk solids for air-gravity conveying.- 15.6 Air-float conveyors for horizontal and upward transport.- 15.7 Energy consumption of air-gravity conveyors.- 15.8 Notation.- References and bibliography.- 16 Hydraulic conveying.- 16.1 Introduction.- 16.2 Components of a hydraulic conveying system.- 16.2.1 Pumps.- 16.2.2 Slurry preparation plant.- 16.2.3 The pipeline.- 16.2.4 De-watering equipment.- 16.3 System design.- 16.3.1 General design approach.- 16.3.2 Flow characreristics and pressure-drop.- 16.4 Recent development.- References and bibliography.- 17 Capsule transport.- 17.1 Introduction.- 17.2 Capsule transport in a pneumatic pipeline.- 17.2.1 General features of a pneumo-capsule system.- 17.2.2 The capsules.- 17.2.3 The pipeline.- 17.2.4 The air supply.- 17.2.5 Loading and unloading stations.- 17.3 Capsule transport in a hydraulic pipeline.- 17.3.1 General features of a hydro-capsule system.- 17.3.2 The capsules.- 17.3.3 The pipeline.- 17.3.4 The water supply and pump system.- 17.3.5 Injection and ejection of capsules.- 17.4 Size of capsule fleet.- 17.5 Notation.- References.

Reviews

Overall, the authors have succeeded in their objective to design the book as a practical source of reference for plan and process engineers, designers, project and maintenance engineers in industries where particulate or granular materials are handled in bulk. It is a highly readable book that engineering students can read and understand on their own. Drying Technology

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