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CCNA Routing and Switching Portable Command Guide

Here are all the CCNA-level Routing and Switching commands you need in one condensed, portable resource. CCNA Routing and Switching Portable Command Guide is filled with valuable, easy-to-access information-and it's portable enough to use whether you're in the server room or the equipment closet. The guide summarizes all CCNA certification-level Cisco IOS Software commands, keywords, command arguments, and associated prompts, providing you with tips and examples of how to apply the commands to real-world scenarios. Throughout, configuration examples give you a better understanding of how these commands are used in simple network designs. This book has been completely updated to cover all topics in the new ICND1 100-105, ICND2 200-105, and CCNA 200-125 exams. Use this quick reference resource to help you memorize commands and concepts as you work to pass the CCNA Routing and Switching certification exam. Coverage includes Network Fundamentals: Subnetting, VLSM, route summarization, cables/connections, CLI LAN Switching: Switch configuration, VLANs, VLAN trunking protocol, inter-VLAN communication, STP, EtherChannel Routing (IPv4/IPv6): Router configuration, static routing, RIPng, EIGRP/EIGRPv6, OSPFv2/OSPFv3 WAN: Point-to-point protocols, eBGP, GRE tunnels, QoS Infrastructure Services: DHCP, FHRP, HSRP, NAT Infrastructure Security: Switch port security, ACL traffic management, device hardening Infrastructure Management: Backup/restore, password recovery, CDP, LLDP, IOS tools, device monitoring, IOS licensing, troubleshooting Quick, offline access to all CCNA Routing and Switching commands for research and solutions --Logical how-to topic groupings for a one-stop resource --Great for review before CCNA Routing and Switching certification exams --Compact size makes it easy to carry with you wherever you go --"Create Your Own Journal" section with blank, lined pages enables you to personalize the book for your needs --"What Do You Want to Do?" chart inside the back cover helps you to quickly reference specific tasks This book is part of the Cisco Press Certification Self-Study Product Family, which offers readers a self-paced study routine for Cisco (R) certification exams. Titles in the Cisco Press Certification Self-Study Product Family are part of a recommended learning program from Cisco that includes simulation and hands-on training from authorized Cisco Learning Partners and self-study products from Cisco Press.
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Table of Contents

Introduction xxii Part I Network Fundamentals Chapter 1 How to Subnet 1 Class A-E Addresses 1 Converting Between Decimal Numbers and Binary 2 Subnetting a Class C Network Using Binary 2 Subnetting a Class B Network Using Binary 5 Binary ANDing 9 So Why AND? 10 Shortcuts in Binary ANDing 11 The Enhanced Bob Maneuver for Subnetting (or How to Subnet Anything in Under a Minute) 12 Chapter 2 VLSM 15 IP Subnet Zero 15 VLSM Example 16 Step 1: Determine How Many H Bits Will Be Needed to Satisfy the Largest Network 16 Step 2: Pick a Subnet for the Largest Network to Use 17 Step 3: Pick the Next Largest Network to Work With 18 Step 4: Pick the Third Largest Network to Work With 20 Step 5: Determine Network Numbers for Serial Links 21 Chapter 3 Route Summarization 25 Example for Understanding Route Summarization 25 Step 1: Summarize Winnipeg's Routes 26 Step 2: Summarize Calgary's Routes 27 Step 3: Summarize Edmonton's Routes 27 Step 4: Summarize Vancouver's Routes 28 Route Summarization and Route Flapping 30 Requirements for Route Summarization 30 Chapter 4 Cables and Connections 31 Connecting a Rollover Cable to Your Router or Switch 31 Using a USB Cable to Connect to Your Router or Switch 31 Terminal Settings 32 LAN Connections 33 Serial Cable Types 33 Which Cable to Use? 35 568A Versus 568B Cables 35 Chapter 5 The Command-Line Interface 37 Shortcuts for Entering Commands 37 Using the Tab Key to Complete Commands 37 Console Error Messages 38 Using the Question Mark for Help 38 enable Command 39 exit Command 39 disable Command 39 logout Command 39 Setup Mode 39 Keyboard Help 40 History Commands 41 terminal Commands 41 show Commands 41 Using the Pipe Parameter (|) with the show Command 42 Part II LAN Switching Technologies Chapter 6 Confi guring a Switch 43 Help Commands 43 Command Modes 44 Verifying Commands 44 Resetting Switch Configuration 44 Setting Host Names 45 Setting Passwords 45 Setting IP Addresses and Default Gateways 45 Setting Interface Descriptions 46 The mdix auto Command 46 Setting Duplex Operation 47 Setting Operation Speed 47 Managing the MAC Address Table 47 Configuration Example 48 Chapter 7 VLANs 51 Creating Static VLANs 51 Using VLAN Configuration Mode 52 Using VLAN Database Mode 52 Assigning Ports to VLANs 53 Using the range Command 53 Configuring a Voice VLAN 53 Configuring Voice and Data with Trust 54 Configuring Voice and Data Without Trust 54 Verifying VLAN Information 55 Saving VLAN Configurations 56 Erasing VLAN Configurations 56 Configuration Example: VLANs 57 2960 Switch 58 Chapter 8 VLAN Trunking Protocol and Inter-VLAN Communication 61 Dynamic Trunking Protocol (DTP) 61 Setting the VLAN Encapsulation Type 62 VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP) 63 Verifying VTP 64 Inter-VLAN Communication Using an External Router: Router-on-a-Stick 64 Inter-VLAN Communication on a Multilayer Switch Through a Switch Virtual Interface 65 Remove L2 Switchport Capability of an Interface on an L3 Switch 65 Configuring Inter-VLAN Communication on an L3 Switch 65 Inter-VLAN Communication Tips 66 Configuration Example: Inter-VLAN Communication 66 ISP Router 67 CORP Router 68 L2Switch2 (Catalyst 2960) 70 L3Switch1 (Catalyst 3560) 72 L2Switch1 (Catalyst 2960) 73 Chapter 9 Spanning Tree Protocol 75 Spanning Tree Protocol Definition 75 Enabling Spanning Tree Protocol 76 Configuring the Root Switch 76 Configuring a Secondary Root Switch 77 Configuring Port Priority 77 Configuring the Path Cost 78 Configuring the Switch Priority of a VLAN 78 Configuring STP Timers 78 Verifying STP 79 Cisco STP Toolkit 79 PortFast 79 BPDU Guard 80 Changing the Spanning-Tree Mode 80 Extended System ID 81 Enabling Rapid Spanning Tree 81 Troubleshooting Spanning Tree 82 Configuration Example: PVST+ 82 Core Switch (3560) 83 Distribution 1 Switch (3560) 83 Distribution 2 Switch (3560) 84 Access 1 Switch (2960) 84 Access 2 Switch (2960) 85 Spanning-Tree Migration Example: PVST+ to Rapid-PVST+ 86 Access 1 Switch (2960) 86 Access 2 Switch (2960) 86 Distribution 1 Switch (3560) 87 Distribution 2 Switch (3560) 87 Core Switch (3560) 87 Chapter 10 EtherChannel 89 EtherChannel 89 Interface Modes in EtherChannel 89 Guidelines for Configuring EtherChannel 90 Configuring Layer 2 EtherChannel 90 Configuring L3 EtherChannel 91 Verifying EtherChannel 92 Configuration Example: EtherChannel 92 DLSwitch (3560) 93 ALSwitch1 (2960) 94 ALSwitch2 (2960) 95 Part III Routing Technologies: IPv4 and IPv6 Chapter 11 Configuring a Cisco Router 97 Router Modes 98 Entering Global Configuration Mode 98 Configuring a Router Name 98 Configuring Passwords 98 Password Encryption 99 Interface Names 99 Moving Between Interfaces 102 Configuring a Serial Interface 103 Configuring a Fast Ethernet Interface 103 Configuring a Gigabit Ethernet Interface 103 Assigning IPv6 Addresses to Interfaces 104 Creating a Message-of-the-Day Banner 104 Creating a Login Banner 105 Setting the Clock Time Zone 105 Mapping a Local Hostname to a Remote IP Address 105 The no ip domain-lookup Command 105 The logging synchronous Command 106 The exec-timeout Command 106 Saving Configurations 106 Erasing Configurations 107 show Commands 107 EXEC Commands in Configuration Mode: The do Command 108 Configuration Example: Basic Router Configuration 108 Boston Router 108 Chapter 12 Static Routing 111 Configuring an IPv4 Static Route on a Router 111 Static Routes and Recursive Lookups 112 The permanent Keyword (Optional) 112 Floating Static Routes and Administrative Distance (Optional) 113 Configuring an IPv4 Default Route on a Router 114 Verifying IPv4 Static Routes 114 Configuration Example: IPv4 Static Routes 114 Boston Router 115 Buffalo Router 116 Bangor Router 116 Static Routes in IPv6 116 Floating Static Routes in IPv6 117 Default Routes in IPv6 118 Verifying and Troubleshooting IPv6 118 Chapter 13 RIP Next Generation (RIPng) 119 Implementing RIP Next Generation 119 Verifying and Troubleshooting RIPng 120 Configuration Example: RIPng 121 Austin Router 122 Houston Router 123 Chapter 14 EIGRP and EIGRPv6 125 Configuring Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) for IPv4 125 Adjusting the EIGRP for IPv4 Metric Weights 126 Adjusting the EIGRPv6 Metric Weights 127 Configuring EIGRPv6 on an Interface 127 EIGRP Router ID 128 EIGRP Timers 128 EIGRP Auto-Summarization for IPv4 129 EIGRP Manual Summarization for IPv4 129 EIGRPv6 Summary Addresses 130 Passive EIGRP Interfaces 130 Equal-Cost Load Balancing: Maximum Paths 130 Unequal-Cost Load Balancing: Variance 131 Bandwidth Use 131 Verifying EIGRP and EIGRPv6 132 Troubleshooting EIGRP and EIGRPv6 134 Configuration Example: EIGRP 134 Austin Router 135 Houston Router 135 Configuration Example: EIGRPv6 136 R3 Router 136 R2 Router 137 R1 Router 138 Chapter 15 OSPFv2 and OSPFv3 139 OSPFv2 Versus OSPFv3 140 Configuring OSPF 140 Using Wildcard Masks with OSPF Areas 140 Configuring Multiarea OSPF 141 Multiarea OSPF Router Types 142 Loopback Interfaces 143 Router ID 143 DR/BDR Elections 144 Passive Interfaces 144 Modifying Cost Metrics 144 OSPF auto-cost reference-bandwidth 145 Timers 145 Propagating a Default Route 145 Route Summarization 146 Interarea Route Summarization 146 External Route Summarization 146 IPv6 and OSPFv3 147 Enabling OSPF for IPv6 on an Interface 147 Interarea OSPFv3 Route Summarization 147 Enabling an IPv4 Router ID for OSPFv3 148 Verifying OSPFv2 and OSPFv3 Configurations 148 Troubleshooting OSPFv2 and OSPFv3 149 Configuration Example: Single-Area OSPF 150 Austin Router 151 Houston Router 151 Galveston Router 152 Configuration Example: Multiarea OSPF 153 ASBR Router 153 ABR-1 Router 155 ABR-2 Router 156 Internal Router 157 Configuration Example: IPv6 and OSPFv3 157 R3 Router 158 R2 Router 159 R1 Router 160 R4 Router 161 Part IV WAN Technologies Chapter 16 Understanding Point-to-Point Protocols 163 Configuring High-Level Data Link Control Encapsulation on a Serial Line 163 Configuring Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) on a Serial Line (Mandatory Commands) 164 Configuring PPP on a Serial Line (Optional Commands): Compression 164 Configuring PPP on a Serial Line (Optional Commands): Link Quality Monitoring 164 Configuring PPP on a Serial Line (Optional Commands): Authentication 165 Verifying and Troubleshooting a Serial Link/PPP Encapsulation 166 Configuration Example: PPP with CHAP Authentication 166 Boston Router 167 Buffalo Router 167 Configuring Multilink Point-to-Point Protocol 168 Branch Router 168 HQ Router 169 Verifying and Troubleshooting MLPPP 170 Configuring a DSL Connection Using Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet 170 Step 1: Configure PPPoE (External Modem) 172 Step 2: Configure the Dialer Interface 172 Step 3: Define Interesting Traffic and Specify Default Routing 173 Step 4: Configure NAT (Choose 1 Method Only) 173 Step 4a: Configure NAT Using an ACL 173 Step 4b: Configure NAT Using a Route Map 173 Step 5: Configure DHCP Service 174 Step 6: Apply NAT Programming 175 Step 7: Verify a PPPoE Connection 175 Chapter 17 External Border Gateway Protocol (eBGP) 177 Configuring Border Gateway Protocol 177 BGP and Loopback Addresses 178 Configuration Example: eBGP 178 eBGP Multihop 179 Verifying BGP Connections 180 Troubleshooting BGP Connections 181 Chapter 18 Configuring Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE) Tunnels 183 Configuring a GRE Tunnel 183 Branch Router 184 HQ Router 184 Verifying a GRE Tunnel 184 Chapter 19 Quality of Service (QoS) 185 High Availability for Voice and Video 185 Configuring Basic QoS 185 Verifying Basic QoS 187 Auto-QoS 187 Restrictions for Auto-QoS 187 Configuring Auto-QoS: 2960-X/3650/3750 188 Verifying Auto QoS: 2960-X/3650/3750 189 Configuring Auto-QoS: 6500 190 Verifying Auto-QoS Information: 6500 191 Part V Infrastructure Services Chapter 20 DHCP 193 Configuring a DHCP Server on an IOS Router 193 Using Cisco IP Phones with a DHCP Server 194 Verifying and Troubleshooting DHCP Configuration 194 Configuring a DHCP Helper Address 195 DHCP Client on a Cisco IOS Software Ethernet Interface 195 Configuration Example: DHCP 195 Edmonton Router 196 Gibbons Router 198 Chapter 21 First Hop Redundancy Protocols (FHRP): Hot Standby Router Protocol (HSRP) 199 First Hop Redundancy 199 HSRP 199 Configuring HSRP on a Router 200 Default HSRP Configuration Settings 200 Verifying HSRP 201 HSRP Optimization Options 201 Preempt 201 HSRP Message Timers 201 Interface Tracking 202 Debugging HSRP 202 Configuration Example: HSRP 202 Router 1 203 Router 2 204 Chapter 22 Network Address Translation (NAT) 205 Private IP Addresses: RFC 1918 205 Configuring Dynamic Network Address Translation: One Private to One Public Address Translation 205 Configuring PAT: Many Private to One Public Address Translation 207 Configuring Static NAT: One Private to One Permanent Public Address Translation 208 Verifying NAT and PAT Configurations 209 Troubleshooting NAT and PAT Configurations 210 Configuration Example: PAT 210 ISP Router 210 Company Router 211 Part VI Infrastructure Security Chapter 23 Switch Port Security 213 Setting Passwords on a Switch 213 Configuring Static MAC Addresses 214 Switch Port Security 214 Verifying Switch Port Security 215 Sticky MAC Addresses 215 Recovering Automatically from Error-Disabled Ports 216 Verifying Autorecovery of Error-Disabled Ports 216 Configuration Example 216 Chapter 24 Managing Traffi c Using Access Control Lists (ACL) 219 Access List Numbers 219 Using Wildcard Masks 220 ACL Keywords 220 Creating Standard ACLs 221 Applying Standard ACLs to an Interface 222 Verifying ACLs 222 Removing ACLs 222 Creating Extended ACLs 222 Applying Extended ACLs to an Interface 223 The established Keyword 224 The log Keyword 224 Creating Named ACLs 225 Using Sequence Numbers in Named ACLs 226 Removing Specific Lines in Named ACLs Using Sequence Numbers 227 Sequence Number Tips 227 Including Comments About Entries in ACLs 228 Restricting Virtual Terminal Access 228 Tips for Configuring ACLs 229 IPv6 ACLs 230 Verifying IPv6 ACLs 230 Configuration Examples: IPv4 ACLs 230 Configuration Examples: IPv6 ACLs 233 Chapter 25 Device Hardening 235 Securing Cisco Device According to Recommended Practices 235 Securing Cisco IOS Routers Checklist 235 Components of a Router Security Policy 236 Configuring Passwords 236 Password Encryption 237 Configuring SSH 238 Verifying SSH 239 Restricting Virtual Terminal Access 239 Disabling Unneeded Services 240 Part VII Infrastructure Management Chapter 26 Backing Up and Restoring Cisco IOS Software and Configurations 241 Boot System Commands 241 The Cisco IOS File System 242 Viewing the Cisco IOS File System 242 Commonly Used URL Prefixes for Cisco Network Devices 242 Deciphering IOS Image Filenames 243 Backing Up Configurations to a TFTP Server 244 Restoring Configurations from a TFTP Server 244 Backing Up the Cisco IOS Software to a TFTP Server 245 Restoring/Upgrading the Cisco IOS Software from a TFTP Server 245 Restoring the Cisco IOS Software from ROM Monitor Mode Using Xmodem 246 Restoring the Cisco IOS Software Using the ROM Monitor Environmental Variables and tftpdnld Command 248 Secure Copy 248 Configuring a Secure Copy Server 249 Verifying and Troubleshooting Secure Copy 249 Configuration Example: Using Secure Copy 249 Chapter 27 Password Recovery Procedures and the Confi guration Register 251 The Configuration Register 251 A Visual Representation of the Configuration Register 251 What the Bits Mean 252 The Boot Field 252 Console Terminal Baud Rate Settings 253 Changing the Console Line Speed: CLI 253 Changing the Console Line Speed: ROM Monitor Mode 254 Password-Recovery Procedures for Cisco Routers 255 Password Recovery for 2960 Series Switches 256 Chapter 28 Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) and Link Layer Discovery Protocol (LLDP) 259 Cisco Discovery Protocol 259 Configuring CDP 259 Verifying and Troubleshooting CDP 260 CDP Design Tips 260 Link Layer Discovery Protocol (802.1AB) 261 Configuring LLDP (802.1AB) 261 Verifying and Troubleshooting LLDP 262 Chapter 29 IOS Tools 263 Configuring a Device to Accept a Remote Telnet Connection 263 Using Telnet to Remotely Connect to Other Devices 264 Verifying Telnet 264 Internet Control Message Protocol Redirect Messages 265 The ping Command 265 Examples of Using the ping and the Extended ping Commands 266 The traceroute Command 268 Chapter 30 Device Monitoring 269 Device Monitoring 269 Simple Network Management Protocol 269 Configuring SNMP 271 Securing SNMPv1 or SNMPv2 271 Securing SNMPv3 272 Verifying SNMP 273 Configuration Backups 273 Implementing Logging 274 Configuring Syslog 274 Syslog Message Format 275 Syslog Severity Levels 275 Syslog Message Example 276 Configuring NetFlow 276 Verifying NetFlow 277 Network Time Protocol 277 Network Time Protocol Configuration 277 Verifying NTP 278 Setting the Clock on a Router 279 Using Time Stamps 283 Chapter 31 Cisco IOS Licensing 285 Cisco Licensing Earlier Than IOS 15.0 285 Cisco Licensing for the ISR G2 Platforms: IOS 15.0 and Later 287 Verifying Licenses 287 Cisco License Manager 287 Cisco Smart Software Manager 288 Installing a Permanent License 288 Installing an Evaluation License 289 Backing Up a License 289 Uninstalling a License 290 Chapter 32 Basic Troubleshooting 291 Viewing the Routing Table 291 Clearing the Routing Table 292 Determining the Gateway of Last Resort 292 Determining the Last Routing Update 292 OSI Layer 3 Testing 293 OSI Layer 7 Testing 293 Interpreting the show interface Command 293 Clearing Interface Counters 293 Using CDP to Troubleshoot 294 The traceroute Command 294 The show controllers Command 294 debug Commands 294 Using Time Stamps 294 Operating System IP Verification Commands 295 The ip http server Command 295 The netstat Command 296 The arp Command 296 Part VIII Appendixes Appendix A Binary/Hex/Decimal Conversion Chart 297 Appendix B Create Your Own Journal Here 305 9781587205880 TOC 5/16/2016

About the Author

Scott Empson is the chair of the Bachelor of Applied Information Systems Technology degree program at the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, where he has taught Cisco routing, switching, network design, and leadership courses in a variety of different programs (certificate, diploma, and applied degree) at the postsecondary level. Scott is also the program coordinator of the Cisco Networking Academy Program at NAIT, an Area Support Centre for the province of Alberta. He has a master of education degree along with three undergraduate degrees: a bachelor of arts, with a major in English; a bachelor of education, again with a major in English/language arts; and a bachelor of applied information systems technology, with a major in network management. He currently holds several industry certifications, including CCNP, CCDP, C|EH and Network+. Before instructing at NAIT, he was a junior/senior high school English/language arts/computer science teacher at different schools throughout northern Alberta. Scott lives in Edmonton, Alberta, with his wife, Trina, and two children, Zachariah and Shaelyn.

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