Calculations for a Level Chemistry Fourth Edition

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Part 1 Basic mathematics: using equations; ratio calculations; negative numbers; standard form; decimal places; significant numbers; estimating your answer; logarithms; graphs; include the units; check your answer. Part 2 Formulae and equations: formulae; equations. Part 3 relative atomic mass: relative atomic mass; relative molecular mass; percentage composition. Part 4 The mole: the mole; relative formula mass; molar mass. Part 5 Equations and the mole: calculations based on chemical equations; working out the equation for a reaction; percentage yield; limiting reactant. Part 6 Finding formulae: empirical formulae; molecular formulae. Part 7 Reacting volumes of gases: combining volumes of gases; gas molar volume; equations and volumes; finding formulae by combustion; reactions of solids and gases. Part 8 Volumetric analysis: concentration; titration; acid-base titrations; oxidation-reduction reactions; oxidation numbers; potassium manganate (VII) titrations; potassium dichromate (VI) titrations; sodium thiosulphate titrations; complexometric titrations. Part 9 The atom: relative isotopic mass; the mass spectrometer; mass spectra of compounds; nuclear reactions. Part 10 Gases and liquids: the gas laws; gas molar volume; mole fraction; partial pressure; the ideal gas equation; liquids - finding the molar mass; liquids - partition coefficient. Part 11 electrochemistry: electrolysis; acids and bases; hydrogen ion concentration; buffer solutions; electrode potentials; electrochemical cells. Part 12 Thermochemistry: internal energy and enthalpy; standard enthalpy changes; standard enthalpy change for a chemical reaction; experimental methods; calculating standard enthalpy of formation; standard enthalpy of reaction from standard enthalpies of formation; average standard bond enthalpy; the Born-Haber cycle; standard enthalpy of solution; free energy and entropy. Part 13 Reaction kinetics: reaction rate; the effect of concentration on rate of reaction; order of reaction; first-order reactions; second-order reactions with reactants of equal concentration; zero-order reactions; the effect of temperature on reaction rates. Part 14 Equilibria: chemical equilibrium; the equilibrium law. Part 15 Organic chemistry. Part 16 Synoptic questions.

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