Contributors.- 1. Introduction; Maria Gravani and George K. Zarifis.- PART 1: Lifelong Learning and New Basic Skills for ll.- 2. The Skills - a Chimera of Modern European Adult Education; Katarina Popovic.- 3. Computer Literacy among the Generations: How can Older Adults Participate in Digital Society?; Bernhard Schmidt-Hertha and Claudia Strobel.- 4. Basic Skills for Becoming a Citizen; Emilio Lucio-Villegas.-5. `New Basic Skills', Non-Basic Skills, Knowledge Practices and Judgment: Tensions between the Needs of Basic Literacy, of Vocational Education and Training, and of Higher and Professional Learning; Martin Gough.- PART 2: Lifelong Learning and More Investment in Human Resources.- 6. Incentives and Disincentives to Invest in Human Resources; Marcella Milana.- 7. An Inconsistent Policy: Lifelong Learning and Adult Education Policy towards Competitive Advantage; Paula Guimaraes and Fatima Antunes.- 8. Vocational Education - the Tension between Educational Flexibility and Predictability; Eva Andersson and Gun-Britt Warvik.- 9. Lifelong Learning and Employability; Andreas Fejes.-10. Human Capital and Human Activity in Lifelong Learning; Despina Tsakiris.- PART 3: Lifelong Learning, Innovative Teaching and Learning, and Rethinking Guidance and Counselling.- 11. Re-representing Education's Image and Status: In the `Interest' of Pedagogical Innovation; Stephen O'Brien.- 12. Teaching Methods and Professional Teaching in Adult Education: Questioning the Memorandum's Understanding of Professional Teaching Regina Egetenmeyer and Patrick Bettinger.- 13. From "Innovation" to "Quality": The Topic of Professionalization for adult Learning Staff in Selected European Policy Documents; Simona Sava.- 14. Being an Adult Learner and Learning through Life; Larissa Jogi.- 15. Perspectives on Guidance and Counselling as Strategic Tools to Improve Lifelong Learning in Portugal; Maria Paula Paixao, Jose Tomas da Silva and Albertina L. Oliveira.- PART 4: Lifelong Learning and Valuing Learning.- 16. Contradicting Values in the Policy Discourse on Lifelong Learning; Nils Bernhardsson.- 17. Quality in Adult Learning: EU policies and Shifting Paradigms?; Bert-Jan Buiskool and Simon Broek.- 18. The Adoption of an International Education Policy Agenda at National Level: Conceptual and Governance Issues; Alexandra Ioannidou.- 19. Vocational Learning: Shifting Relationships between Education and Working Life; Erik Kats and Jaap van Lakerveld.- 20. Evaluating Learning and the Work of a Researcher in the Era of Lifelong Learning; Kristiina Brunila.- 21. What About the Learner-Search for Identity and Meaning in Autobiographic Methods; Laura Formenti and Michaela Castiglioni.- PART 5: Lifelong Learning and Bringing Learning Closer to Home.- 22. "Bringing Learning Closer to Home": Understanding `Outreach Work' as a Mobilization Strategy to Increase Participation in Adult Learning; Barry Hake.- 23. Lifelong Learning and Schools as Community Learning Centres: Key Aspects of a National Curriculum Draft Policy Framework for Malta; Peter Mayo.- 24. The Rise and Fall and Rise again of Learning Cities; Lynette Jordan, Norman Longworth and Michael Osborne.- 25. Collective Dimensions in Lifelong Education and Learning: Political and Pedagogical Reflections; Francoise F. Laot.- 26. Reinstating the Invisible: A Proposed Framework for European Learning Collectives; George K. Zarifis and Maria Gravani.- Index.