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Child Development
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Table of Contents

Part I: Theory and Research in Child Development 1 History, Theory, and Applied Directions The Field of Child Development Basic Issues Historical Foundations Mid-Twentieth-Century Theories Recent Theoretical Perspectives Comparing Child Development Theories Applied Directions: Child Development and Social Policy 2 Research Strategies From Theory to Hypothesis Common Research Methods Reliability and Validity: Keys to Scientifically Sound Research General Research Designs Designs for Studying Development Part II: Foundations of Development 3 Biological Foundations, Prenatal Development, and Birth Genetic Foundations Reproductive Choices Prenatal Development Prenatal Environmental Influences Childbirth Approaches to Childbirth Birth Complications Heredity, Environment, and Behavior: A Look Ahead 4 Infancy: Early Learning, Motor Skills, and Perceptual Capacities The Organized Newborn Motor Development in Infancy Perceptual Development in Infancy Early Deprivation and Enrichment: Is Infancy a Sensitive Period of Development? 5 Physical Growth The Course of Physical Growth Brain Development Factors Affecting Physical Growth Puberty: The Physical Transition to Adulthood The Psychological Impact of Pubertal Events Puberty and Adolescent Health Part III: Cognitive and Language Development 6 Cognitive Development: Piagetian, Core Knowledge, and Vygotskian Perspectives Piaget's Cognitive-Developmental Theory The Sensorimotor Stage: Birth to 2 Years The Preoperational Stage: 2 to 7 Years The Concrete Operational Stage: 7 to 11 Years The Formal Operational Stage: 11 Years and Older Piaget and Education The Core Knowledge Perspective Vygotsky's Sociocultural Theory Vygotsky and Education Evaluation of Vygotsky's Theory 7 Cognitive Development: An Information-Processing Perspective The Information-Processing Approach General Models of Information Processing Developmental Theories of Information Processing Attention Memory Metacognition Applications of Information Processing to Academic Learning Evaluation of the Information-Processing Approach 8 Intelligence Definitions of Intelligence Recent Advances in Defining Intelligence Measuring Intelligence What Do Intelligence Tests Predict, and How Well? Ethnic and Socioeconomic Variations in IQ Explaining Individual and Group Differences in IQ Early Intervention and Intellectual Development Giftedness: Creativity and Talent 9 Language Development Components of Language Theories of Language Development Prelinguistic Development: Getting Ready to Talk Phonological Development Semantic Development Grammatical Development Pragmatic Development Development of Metalinguistic Awareness Bilingualism: Learning Two Languages in Childhood Part IV: Personality and Social Development 10 Emotional Development Functions of Emotions Development of Emotional Expression Understanding and Responding to the Emotions of Others Temperament and Development Development of Attachment Attachment, Parental Employment, and Child Care 11 Self and Social Understanding Emergence of Self and Development of Self-Concept Self-Esteem: The Evaluative Side of Self-Concept Constructing an Identity: Who Should I Become? Thinking About Other People Understanding Conflict: Social Problem Solving 12 Moral Development Morality as Rooted in Human Nature Morality as the Adoption of Societal Norms Morality as Social Understanding Development of Morally Relevant Self-Control The Other Side of Self-Control: Development of Aggression 13 Development of Sex Differences and Gender Roles Gender Stereotypes and Gender Roles Influences on Gender Stereotyping and Gender-Role Adoption Gender Identity To What Extent Do Boys and Girls Really Differ in Gender-Stereotyped Attributes? Developing Non-Gender-Stereotyped Children Part V: Contexts for Development 14 The Family Origins and Functions of the Family The Family as a Social System Socialization Within the Family Family Lifestyles and Transitions Vulnerable Families: Child Maltreatment 15 Peers, Media, and Schooling Peer Relations Media Schooling

About the Author

Laura E. Berk is a distinguished professor of psychology at Illinois State University, where she has taught child and human development to both undergraduate and graduate students for more than three decades. She received her bachelor's degree in psychology from the University of California, Berkeley, and her master's and doctoral degrees in child development and educational psychology from the University of Chicago. She has been a visiting scholar at Cornell University, UCLA, Stanford University, and the University of South Australia. Berk has published widely on the effects of school environments on children's development, the development of private speech, and recently, the role of make-believe play in development. Her research has been funded by the U.S. Office of Education and the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. It has appeared in many prominent journals, includingChild Development, Developmental Psychology, Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, Development and Psychopathology, andEarly Childhood Research Quarterly. Her empirical studies have attracted the attention of the general public, leading to contributions toPsychology Today andScientific American. She has also been featured on National Public Radio'sMorning Edition and inParents Magazine, Wondertime, andReader's Digest. Berk has served as research editor ofYoung Children and consulting editor ofEarly Childhood Research Quarterly. Currently, she is associate editor of theJournal of Cognitive Education and Psychology. She is a frequent contributor to edited volumes on early childhood development, having recently authored chapters on the importance of parenting, on make-believe play and self-regulation, and on the kindergarten child. She has also written the chapter on development forThe Many Faces of Psychological Research in the Twenty-First Century (Society for the Teaching of Psychology), the article on social development forThe Child: An Encyclopedic Companion, the article on Vygotsky for theEncyclopedia of Cognitive Science, and the chapter on storytelling as a teaching strategy forVoices of Experience: Memorable Talks from the National Institute on the Teaching of Psychology (Association for Psychological Science). Berk's books includePrivate Speech: From Social Interaction to Self-Regulation, Scaffolding Children's Learning: Vygotsky and Early Childhood Education, Landscapes of Development: An Anthology of Readings, andA Mandate for Playful Learning in Preschool: Presenting the Evidence. In addition toChild Development, she is author of the best-selling textsInfants, Children, and Adolescents andDevelopment Through the Lifespan, published by Pearson. Her book for parents and teachers isAwakening Children's Minds: How Parents and Teachers Can Make a Difference. Berk is active in work for children's causes. In addition to service in her home community, she is a member of the national board of directors and chair of the Chicago advisory board of Jumpstart, a nonprofit organization that provides intensive literacy intervention to thousands of low-income preschoolers across the United States, using college and university students as interveners. Berk is a fellow of the American Psychological Association, Division, 7: Developmental Psychology.

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