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Child and Adolescent Development


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Table of Contents

Preface Acknowledgments About the Authors 1. Introduction A Behavioral Systems Approach A Dynamical Systems Approach What Is Development? A Natural Science Approach to Development The Continuum of Scientific Disciplines Metaphors for Understanding Developmental Levels Reductionism and Antireductionism Behavioral Systems and Developmental Psychology The Central Role of Learning for Development The Evolutionary Significance of Learning A Parallelism Between Evolution and Learning What Do Developmental Psychologists Do? Summary Note 2. Modern Developmental Theory The Importance of Theory Four Dimensions on Which Theories Differ Judging Developmental Theories: Seven Criteria Research Designs in Behavioral Development A Behavioral Systems Approach Principles of Dynamical Systems Organism-Environment Model Developmental Questions for Research Summary Notes 3. Behavior Genetics The Human Genome Controversy: The Role of Genetics in Development Behavior Genetics: The Structures Genetic Functions Genetic Variability Sources of Development: The Combined Roles of Heredity and Environment Does Behavioral Development Result From Interactions? What Factors Transact In Human Development? How Do Genes and Environment Interact? A Behavioral View: Person-Environment Interactions A Behavioral Systems Approach Summary Notes 4. Prenatal, Birth, and Postnatal Periods Periods of Prenatal Development Principles of Prenatal Development The Earliest Environment A Closer Look at Teratogens Reproductive Risk Versus Caretaking Casuality Getting Ready for the World Postnatal Development: The Remarkable Newborn The Neonate's Ability to Respond to the Environment Sensory Abilities Perceptual Abilities as Universal Behaviors Reflexes as Universal Behaviors How Do Reflexes Change? Summary Note 5. Learning I: Habituation and Respondent Learning Learning as a Natural Selection Process Classifying Stimuli Functional Stimulus Classes Types of Learning Habituation Contiguity and Learning Respondent Learning The Treatment of Fears and Phobias: An Application of Respondent Learning Operant Learning Response Classes and Operants How Do Operants and Respondents Differ? Summary Notes 6. Operant Learning The Contributions of B. F. Skinner (1904-1990) What Is a Contingency? The Three-Term Contingency The Four-Term Contingency The First Term: The Response The Second Term: The Consequence The Third Term: The Discriminative Stimulus (Sd) The Fourth Term: The Setting Event (SE) or Establishing Operation (EO) What Changes? The Development of Acquired Reinforcing Stimuli Operant Learning and Dynamical Principles of Development Summary Notes 7. Cognitive Development Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development Vygotsky's Theory of Cognitive Development Behavioral Approaches to Cognitive Development Fischer's Skill Learning Approach to Cognitive Development Skill Theory and Behavior Analysis Stimulus Equivalence and Cognitive Development Summary Notes 8. The Development of Communication Structure Versus Function: Clashing Theories A Structural Approach: Psycholinguistics A Functional Approach: The Analysis of Verbal Behavior Early Stages of Language Development Language Development as Skill Learning Summary 9. Personality and the Self Personality: Biological Theories Personality: Behavioral Approaches A Behavioral Systems Approach to Personality Gender Differences The Self Summary Note 10. Social and Emotional Development Why Study Social and Emotional Development? Processes in Social Behavior Social Behaviors as Reinforcers Observational Learning Prosocial Transactions: Intuitive Parenting The Origins of Social Phenomena The Power of Touch Fear Social Referencing Sibling Rivalry and Jealousy Social Cognition and Environment Prosocial Behaviors in Early Childhood The Development of Morality Summary Note 11. Development of Antisocial Behaviors What Are Antisocial Interactions? The Origins of Aggression A Behavioral Systems Approach Coercive Family Process: Basic Training of Antisocial Behavior in the Home The Development of Aggression Changing the Behavioral Systems: Parent Training Three Keys to Effective Parenting A Behavioral Systems View of Physical Child Abuse Summary 12. The Family System Families as the Mediators of Society and Culture The Universal Functions of Parenting The Social and Cultural Context of Families The Family as a System of Systems The Functions of Family Members Levels of Systems: How Society Influences Child Development What Happens When the Role is Absent or Changed? The Effects of Divorce Patterns of Family Discipline Children in the Context of Poverty Summary Note 13. Schools The Schools as Agents of Society and Culture The Functions of Education Type S and Type F Systems Learning and Teaching Teaching as Applied Developmental Psychology What Makes for Effective Teaching What and How to Teach: Final Comments Summary Notes 14. Adolescence What Is Adolescent Behavioral Development? Physical Development and Behavior Environmental Factors Affecting Puberty Moral Behavior and Reasoning Personality Development During Adolescence Parenting Style Family and Social Support Systems Behavioral Disorders During Adolescence Love and Romantic Relations Adolescent Attachment and Separation Summary 15. Behavior Disorders of Childhood What Are Behavioral Disorders? Behavior Disorders Usually First Diagnosed in Infancy, Childhood, or Adolescence What Causes Behavior Disorders? Assessment of Behavior Disorders Types of Behavioral Disorders Summary Glossary References Name Index Subject Index

About the Author

Gary Novak received his Ph.D. in developmental psychology from SUNY-Stony Brook. He is a Professor in the Department of Psychology and Child Development at California State University, Stanislaus, where he has taught since 1973, serving twice as department chair. He founded the campus Child Development Center and was recognized with the University's Outstanding Professor Award. He has written many publications and has made numerous professional presentations on children's language, cognitive, and behavioral development and on behavioral systems approaches to development. His research interests include language, cognitive, and literacy development. He is a Board Certified Behavior Analyst. Martha Pelaez received her Ph.D. in developmental psychology from Florida International University in 1992, winning the International Dissertation Award from the International Society for Infant Studies for her research on infant social referencing. She subsequently completed a Post-Doctoral Fellowship at the University of Miami Medical School before taking a position in the Department of Educational and Psychological Studies at Florida International University, where she is an Associate Professor. Her post-doctoral work studied the behavior of depressed mothers and the effects on infants' social and cognitive development. Dr. Pelaez has conducted numerous investigations on infant learning phenomena, including attachment, social referencing, fear of strangers, fear of dark, moral development, rule-governed behavior, and stimulus equivalence. She is a Fellow of the American Psychological Association and a past Program Chair of APA Division 25. She has also served as a program co-chair for the Association for Behavior Analysis. She is a Board Certified Behavior Analyst.


"The book very nicely incorporates behavior analysis and modern developmental theories. . . . Another nice feature is that it is not encyclopedic; it organizes the disparate developmental phenomena in terms of principles and mechanisms. . . . The writing style is easy to follow and suitable for college students. The scholarship and coverage are excellent." -- Jesus Rosales-Ruiz
"The book is a very good read. It is also truly unique in the field of developmental psychology...a field in which far too little attention is typically paid to the obvious fact that children's development involves learning." -- Michael W. Vasey
"Presents behavioral principles in a systematic and fairly sophisticated manner (as contrasted with the simplistic treatment those principles often receive in textbooks of introductory or developmental psychology), while linking up with contemporary conceptions of dynamic systems. . .straightforward and clear, accessible to undergraduates without coming across as simplistic." -- Temple University
"Most useful for the subset of college instructors who are process oriented and focus upon a sophisticated multilevel conceptual approach that considers the environmental impact on behavioral development and the concurrent impact of the developing individual upon the significant figures in its environment. . . . No other undergraduate text presents such a clear interweaving of developmental considerations and concepts with learning concepts." -- Jacob L. Gewirtz
"This book is unique because of its blending of behavior analysis and its dynamical systems point of view. . . . The authors' writing style is very engaging and accessible to undergraduate level students [and] the level of scholarship is excellent, particularly in its depth when dealing with theoretical issues. . . . A cutting-edge look at a behavior analytic view of child and adolescent development." -- Pete Peterson

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