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Clinical Guide to Fish Medicine
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Table of Contents

Preface and Acknowledgments

List of Contributors

SECTION A

- Chapter A1 - Anatomy and Taxonomy

o A1.1 Introduction

o A1.2 Anatomy of Bony Fish

A1.2.1 Body Plan

A1.2.2 Integument

A1.2.3 Musculoskeletal System

A1.2.4 Buoyancy Organs

A1.2.5 Adipose Tissue

A1.2.6 Ocular Anatomy

A1.2.7 Auditory Anatomy

A1.2.8 Olfactory and Gustatory Anatomy

A1.2.9 Oral/Pharyngeal Cavity

A1.2.10 Gastrointestinal System

A1.2.11 Liver and Gallbladder

A1.2.12 Respiratory System

A1.2.13 Cardiovascular System

A1.2.14 Lymphomyeloid System

A1.2.15 Endocrine System

A1.2.16 Urogenital System

A1.2.17 Neurologic System

o A1.3 Anatomy of Cartilaginous Fish

A1.3.1 Body Plan

A1.3.2 Integument

A1.3.3 Musculoskeletal System

A1.3.4 Buoyancy Organs

A1.3.5 Ocular Anatomy

A1.3.6 Auditory Anatomy

A1.3.7 Olfactory and Gustatory Anatomy

A1.3.8 Oral/Pharyngeal Cavity

A1.3.9 Gastrointestinal System

A1.3.10 Liver and Gallbladder

A1.3.11 Respiratory System

A1.3.12 Cardiovascular System

A1.3.13 Hematopoietic and Immunologic System

A1.3.14 Endocrine System

A1.3.15 Urogenital System

A1.3.16 Neurologic System

o A1.4 Taxonomy

A1.4.1 Taxonomy of Bony Fish (Osteichthyes)

A1.4.1 Taxonomy of Cartilaginous Fish (Chondrichthyes)

- Chapter A2: Water Quality

o A2.1 Introduction

o A2.2 Water Source

o A2.3 Dissolved Oxygen

o A2.4 Total Gas Pressures

o A2.5 Temperature

o A2.6 Salinity and Salt Composition

o A2.7 Nitrogenous Wastes (Ammonia, Nitrite, Nitrate)

o A2.8 pH

o A2.9 Alkalinity and Hardness

o A2.10 Carbon Dioxide

o A2.11 Chlorines and Chloramines

o A2.12 Iodide and Iodate

o A2.13 Heavy Metals

o A2.14 Turbidity/Suspended Solids

o A2.15 Microbiome and Bacterial Testing

o A2.16 Water Quality Testing Options

o A2.17 Conclusion

- Chapter A3: Life Support Systems

o A3.1 Introduction

o A3.2 Bacteria and other Microorganisms

o A3.3 System Type

o A3.4 Oxygenation and Gas Exchange

o A3.5 Water Flow

o A3.6 Mechanical Filtration

A3.6.1 Surface Skimming

A3.6.2 Prefilters

A3.6.3 Sand/Canister/Bead filters

A3.6.4 Settling/Sedimentation Tanks

A3.6.5 Foam Fractionators

A3.6.6 Activated Carbon

A3.6.7 Flocculation

A3.6.8 Mechanical Filtration Trouble-Shooting

o A3.7 Biological Filtration and Nitrification

A3.7.1 Biological Filtration Trouble-Shooting

o A3.8 Denitrification

o A3.9 Ecological Scrubbers

o A3.10 Water Disinfection

A3.10.1 Ultraviolet Light Disinfection

A3.10.2 Ozone Disinfection

o A3.11 Temperature Control

o A3.12 Noise and Vibration

o A3.13 Lighting

o A3.14 Other Life-Support Equipment

o A3.15 Pond Life-Support

o A3.16 Coral Reef Life-Support

o A3.17 Conclusion

- Chapter A4 - Nutrition and Nutritional Support

o A4.1 Introduction

o A4.2 Natural History

A4.2.1 Wild Diet and Foraging Ecology

A4.2.2 Metabolism and Energetics

A4.2.3 Anatomy and Digestion

o A4.3 Nutrient Requirements

A4.3.1 Sources of Energy

A4.3.2 Protein

A4.3.3 Lipid

A4.3.4 Carbohydrates

A4.3.5 Vitamins

A4.3.6 Minerals

A4.3.7 Other Additives

A4.3.8 Nutrient Choice

o A4.4 Feeding

A4.4.1 Diet Selection and Formulation

A4.4.2 Food Types

A4.4.3 Vitamin and Mineral Supplementation

o A4.4.4 Feeding Behavior, Amount, and Frequency

A4.4.5 Body Condition

o A4.5 Food Storage and Preparation

A4.5.1 Food Safety and Monitoring

A4.5.2 Storage

A4.5.3 Food Preparation

A4.5.4 Quality Control

o A4.6 Nutritional Support

A4.6.1 Appetite Stimulants

A4.6.2 Assisted Feeding

o A4.7 Larval and Broodstock Nutrition

o A4.8 New Directions in Fish Nutrition Research

- Chapter A5 - Fish Behavior: Training and Enrichment

o A5.1 Introduction

o A5.2 Fish Abilities

o A5.3 Benefits of Behavioral Management

o A5.4 Introduction to the Science of Learning

o A5.5 Before Training Begins

o A5.6 Getting Started with Training

o A5.7 Basic Training

o A5.8 Beyond Basic Training (Other Reasons to Train)

o A5.9 Modifying Problem Behaviors

o A5.10 Conclusion

- Chapter A6 - Clinical Examination

o A6.1 Introduction

o A6.2 History

o A6.3 Clinical Examination

A6.3.1 Observation

A6.3.2 Transport Considerations

A6.3.3 Handling Considerations

A6.3.4 Manual Restraint

A6.3.5 Chemical Restraint

A6.3.6 Components of the Physical Examination

o A6.4 Individual Identification

o A6.5 Diagnostic Sampling

A6.5.1 Skin Scrapes

A6.5.2 Gill Biopsies

A6.5.3 Fin Biopsies

A6.5.4 Fecal Collection

A6.5.5 Diagnostic Imaging

A6.5.6 Blood Collection

A6.5.7 Musculoskeletal Impression Smears, Aspirates, or Biopsies

A6.5.8 Coelomic Aspirates or Biopsies

A6.5.9 Periocular and Ocular Aspirates

A6.5.10 Cerebrospinal Fluid Collection

A6.5.11 Egg or Sperm Collection

o A6.6 Commercial Laboratories

- Chapter A7 - Clinical Pathology

o A7.1 Introduction

o A7.2 Reference Materials in Fish Medicine

o A7.3 Wet Mount Examinations

A7.3.1 Skin Scrapes

A7.3.2 Gill Biopsies/Gill Clips

A7.3.3 Fin Biopsies/Fin Clips

A7.3.4 Fecal Wet Mounts

A7.3.5 Tissue Wet Mounts/Squash Preparations

o A7.4 Cytologic Examination

A7.4.1 Factors that Affect the Diagnostic Quality of Stained Cytologies

A7.4.2 Cytologic Sample Evaluation

o A7.5 Histopathology

o A7.6 Hematology

A7.6.1 Hematologic Sample Processing

A7.6.2 Hematologic Sample Evaluation

A7.6.3 Special Stains for Hematology

o A7.7 Blood Biochemistry

A7.7.1 Biochemistry Sample Processing

A7.7.2 Biochemistry Sample Evaluation

o A7.8 Toxicologic and Nutritional Analyses

A7.8.1 Toxicology

A7.8.2 Vitamin and Mineral Analysis

o A7.9 Microbiology

A7.9.1 Bacteriology

A7.9.2 Virology

o A7.10 Molecular Diagnostics

A7.10.1 Nucleic Acid Amplification Methods

A7.10.2 DNA Sequencing

o A7.11 Immunohistochemistry

o A7.12 In Situ Hybridization

o A7.13 Antibody-Based Testing

A7.13.1 Fluorescent Antibody Testing

A7.13.2 Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISAs)

o A7.14 Conclusion

- Chapter A8 - Diagnostic Imaging

o A8.1 Introduction

o A8.2 Conventional Radiography

A8.2.1 Radiographic Safety

A8.2.2 Plain Radiography

A8.2.3 Contrast Radiography

A8.2.4 Interventional Radiography

o A8.3 Computed Tomography

o A8.4 Magnetic Resonance Imaging

o A8.5 Ultrasonography

o A8.6 Common Abnormalities Identified with Diagnostic Imaging

A8.6.1 Spinal Pathology

A8.6.2 Swim Bladder Pathology

A8.6.3 Skin and Pouch Pathology in Syngnathids

A8.6.4 Gastrointestinal Pathology

A8.6.5 Hepatic Pathology

A8.6.6 Reproductive Pathology

o A8.7 Conclusion

- Chapter A9 - Necropsy and Ancillary Diagnostics

o A9.1 Introduction

o A9.2 Specimen Selection

A9.2.1 Euthanasia of Fish

o A9.3 Human Safety

o A9.4 Equipment Needed

o A9.5 Gross Necropsy

A9.5.1 Ancillary Diagnostics

A9.5.2 External Examination

A9.5.3 Gill, Skin, and Fin Wet Mounts

A9.5.4 Necropsy Approach

A9.5.5 Examination In Situ

A9.5.6 Organ Evaluation

A9.5.7 Organ Wet Mounts and Impression Smears

A9.5.8 Sample Storage and Bio-artifacts

A9.5.9 Disposal

o A9.6 Histology

A9.6.1 Fixatives

A9.6.2 Samples

A9.6.3 Shipping

A9.6.4 Processing and Stains

A9.6.5 Histopathologic Interpretation

o A9.7 Conclusion

- Chapter A10 - Anesthesia and Analgesia

o A10.1 Introduction

o A10.2 Anatomical and Physiological Considerations

A10.2.1 Respiratory Systems

A10.2.2 Skin and Muscle

A10.2.3 Temperature and Metabolism

o A10.3 Water Quality Considerations

A10.3.1 Dissolved Oxygen and Temperature

A10.3.2 pH and Nitrogenous Waste

A10.3.3 Ionic Balance

o A10.4 Anesthetic Techniques and Drugs

A10.4.1 Human Safety

A10.4.2 Preanesthetic Preparation

A10.4.3 Anesthetic Drug Administration and Agents

o A10.5 Monitoring, Support, Recovery, and Resuscitation

A10.5.1 Anesthetic Depth

A10.5.2 Cardiopulmonary Activity

A10.5.3 Water Quality Monitoring

A10.5.4 Recovery

A10.5.5 Resuscitation

o A10.6 Analgesia

o A10.7 Euthanasia

- Chapter A11 - Surgery and Endoscopy

o A11.1 Introduction

o A11.2 General Surgical Principles

A11.2.1 Preparation of the Patient

A11.2.2 Instrumentation and Visualization

A11.2.3 Suture

A11.2.4 Post-operative Management

o A11.3 Surgical Procedures

A11.3.1 External Mass Excision/Biopsy

A11.3.2 Ophthalmic Surgery

A11.3.3 Pseudobranch Ablation

A11.3.4 Coeliotomy

o A11.4 General Endoscopy Principles

A11.4.1 Rigid Endoscopy Instrumentation

A11.4.2 Rigid Endoscope Handling and Use

A11.4.3 Endosurgery

A11.4.4 Flexible Endoscopy

o A11.5 Endoscopic Procedures

A11.5.1 Gill Endoscopy and Stomatoscopy

A11.5.2 Gastroscopy

A11.5.3 Cloacoscopy

A11.5.4 Coelioscopy

A11.5.5 Pneumocystoscopy

A11.5.6 Biopsy Sample Handling

A11.5.7 Endosurgical Procedures

o A11.6 Conclusion

- Chapter A12 - Medical Treatment

o A12.1 Introduction

o A12.2 Environmental Options

o A12.3 Routes of Administration

A12.3.1 Injectable

A12.3.2 Oral

A12.3.3 Immersion

A12.3.4 Topical

A12.3.5 Other Routes

o A12.4 Commonly Used Medical Treatments

A12.4.1 Antibiotics

A12.4.2 Antiparasitics

A12.4.3 Antifungals

A12.4.4 Antivirals

A12.4.5 Anti-inflammatories

A12.4.6 Hormones

o A12.5 Vaccines

o A12.6 Immune Stimulants

o A12.7 Critical Care

A12.7.1 Resuscitation of a Non-responsive Fish

A12.7.2 Fluid Therapy

o A12.8 Legislation

A12.8.1 International Legislation

A12.8.2 Legislation in the United States

A12.8.3 Legislation in Europe

o A12.9 Conclusion

- Chapter A13 - Environmental Considerations of Immersion Medications

o A13.1 Introduction

o A13.2 Impacts of Water Chemistry on Immersion Medication

o A13.3 Effects of Water Clarification and Disinfection on Immersion Medications

o A13.4 Effects of Immersion Medications on the Biological Filtration

o A13.5 Microbiome Effects

o A13.6 Effects on Target and Non-target Species

o A13.7 Medication Assays

o A13.8 Diving or Swimming in Medicated Water

o A13.9 Disposal of Medicated Water

A13.9.1 Discharge to Municipal Sanitary Sewer

A13.9.2 Discharge to a Natural Body of Water

A13.9.3 Return to the Institution's Water System

A13.9.4 Biotic or Abiotic Removal or Destruction of the Medication

A13.9.5 Transfer to an Evaporation Pond

o A13.10 Record-keeping

o A13.11 Specific Drug Examples

A13.11.1 Formalin

A13.11.2 Trichlorfon or Metrifonate

A13.11.3 Praziquantel

A13.11.4 Copper Sulfate, Chelated Copper

A13.11.5 Chloroquine

- Chapter A14 - Acquisition and Transport

o A14.1 Introduction

o A14.2 Source and Sustainability

A14.2.1 Cultured or Previously Wild-Caught Fish

A14.2.2 Recently Wild-Caught Fish

o A14.3 General Principles of Acquisition and Transport

o A14.4 Preparation

A14.4.1 Risk Assessment

A14.4.2 Pre-shipment Conditioning

A14.4.3 Mock Transports

A14.4.4 Feeding and Fasting

o A14.5 Catch and Handling Recommendations

A14.5.1 Aquarium or Pond Bony Fish

A14.5.2 Aquarium Cartilaginous Fish

A14.5.3 Free-ranging Bony Fish

A14.5.4 Free-ranging Cartilaginous Fish

o A14.6 Transport Containers

A14.6.1 Shipping Bags

A14.6.2 Rigid Transport Containers

A14.6.3 Additives

A14.6.4 Temperature Control

A14.6.5 Filtration and Monitoring Systems

A14.6.6 Staffing and Medical Intervention

o A14.7 Transport Options

A14.7.1 By Road

A14.7.2 By Air

A14.7.3 By Boat

A14.7.4 By Parcel Carrier

o A14.8 Acclimation on Arrival

o A14.9 Legislation

o A14.10 Conclusion

- Chapter A15 - Quarantine

o A15.1 Introduction

o A15.2 Critical Components

A15.2.1 Acquisition Planning

A15.2.2 Isolation and Biosecurity

A15.2.3 Environmental Conditions

A15.2.4 Close Monitoring

A15.2.5 Diagnostics and Treatments

A15.2.6 Accurate Records

o A15.3 Risk Assessment Approach

A15.3.1 Example 1: Quarantine of Koi for an Established Koi Pond

A15.3.2 Example 2: Quarantine of Neon Tetras for a New Home Aquarium

A15.3.3 Example 3: Quarantine of a Group of Tropical Marine Teleosts for a Display Aquarium

A15.3.4 Example 4: Quarantine of Pelagic, Ram-ventilating Shark for a Display Aquarium

A15.3.5 Example 5: Quarantine of Tilapia for an Established Tilapia Culture Facility

o A15.4 Training and Enrichment

o A15.5 'Failing' Quarantine

o A15.6 Clearing Quarantine

o A15.7 Reviewing Quarantine Results

SECTION B Presenting Problems

- B1 Acute Mortalities in a Group

- B2 Respiratory or Cardiovascular Signs

o B2.1 Dyspnea and Tachypnea

o B2.2 Gill Pallor

- B3 Cutaneous Signs

o B3.1 Red/Erosive Skin Lesions

o B3.2 White Skin Lesions

o B3.3 Dark Skin Lesions

o B3.4 Pruritus

- B4 Gastrointestinal or Coelomic Signs

o B4.1 Inappetence, Weight Loss

o B4.2 Coelomic Distension

o B4.3 Dental Disease

o B4.4 Cloacal/Anal Distension or Prolapse

- B5 Musculoskeletal or Neurologic Signs

o B5.1 Spinal Deformity

o B5.2 External Masses

o B5.3 Circling or Spiraling

o B5.4 Positive Buoyancy

o B5.5 Negative Buoyancy

- B6 Ocular Signs

o B6.1 Exophthalmos or Buphthalmos

o B6.2 Ocular Opacity

SECTION C

- C1 Non-Infectious Diseases (Environmental)

o C1.1 Low Dissolved Oxygen

o C1.2 Gas Supersaturation

o C1.3 Barotrauma

o C1.4 Temperature Stress

o C1.5 pH Stress

o C1.6 Ammonia Toxicity

o C1.7 Nitrite Toxicity

o C1.8 Nitrate Toxicity

o C1.9 Chlorine and Chloramine Toxicity

o C1.10 Heavy Metal Toxicity

o C1.11 Hydrogen Sulfide Toxicity

o C1.12 Organophosphate and Carbamate Toxicity

- C2 Non-Infectious Diseases (Other)

o C2.1 Physical Trauma

o C2.2 Electrical Trauma

o C2.3 Exertional Myopathy

o C2.4 Lateral Line Depigmentation

o C2.5 Thyroid Hyperplasia (Goiter)

o C2.6 Mucometra and Ovarian Cysts

o C2.7 Egg Retention or Egg Binding

o C2.8 Dystocia

o C2.9 Cataracts

o C2.10 Lipid Keratopathy (Corneal Lipidosis)

o C2.11 Obesity

o C2.12 Micronutrient Deficiency

o C2.13 Gastrointestinal Foreign Bodies

o C2.14 Neoplasia

- C3 Viral Diseases

o C3.1 Viral Diseases (General)

o C3.2 Cyprinid Herpesviruses

o C3.3 Ictalurid Herpesviruses

o C3.4 Rhabdoviruses

o C3.5 Birnaviruses

o C3.6 Pox Viruses

o C3.7 Lymphocystiviruses

o C3.8 Ranaviruses

o C3.9 Megalocytiviruses

o C3.10 Orthomyxoviruses

o C3.11 Betanodaviruses

- C4 Bacterial Diseases

o C4.1 Bacterial Diseases (General)

o C4.2 Aeromonas salmonicida

o C4.3 Motile Aeromonad Septicemia

o C4.4 Vibriosis

o C4.5 Enteric Septicemia of Catfish

o C4.6 Edwardsiellosis

o C4.7 Columnaris and Flexibacteriosis

o C4.8 Flavobacterium psychrophilum

o C4.9 Yersiniosis

o C4.10 Streptococcosis

o C4.11 Renibacterium salmoninarum

o C4.12 Mycobacteriosis

o C4.13 Nocardiosis

o C4.14 Epitheliocystis

o C4.15 Francisellosis

o C4.16 Piscirickettsiosis

- C5 Fungal and Fungal-Like Diseases

o C5.1 Oomycota (Saprolegniasis)

o C5.2 Exophiala spp.

o C5.3 Fusarium spp.

o C5.4 Microsporidia

o C5.5 Mesomycetozoa (DRIPs)

- C6 Protozoal Diseases

o C6.1 Ichthyophthirius multifiliis

o C6.2 Cryptocaryon irritans

o C6.3 Chilodonella spp.

o C6.4 Brooklynella spp.

o C6.5 Scuticociliates

o C6.6 Trichodinids

o C6.7 Sessile Ciliates

o C6.8 Cryptobia spp.

o C6.9 Ichthyobodo spp.

o C6.10 Spironucleus and Hexamita spp.

o C6.11 Amyloodinium and Piscinoodinium spp.

o C6.12 Amoebic Gill Disease

- C7 Metazoan Diseases

o C7.1 Monogeneans (General)

o C7.2 Capsalid Monogeneans

o C7.3 Dactylogyrid Monogeneans

o C7.4 Gyrodactylid Monogeneans

o C7.5 Monocotylid Monogeneans

o C7.6 Microbothriid Monogeneans

o C7.7 Polyopisthocotyle Monogeneans

o C7.8 Digenes (Excluding Blood Flukes)

o C7.9 Digenes (Blood Flukes)

o C7.10 Turbellaria

o C7.11 Cestodes

o C7.12 Leeches

o C7.13 Ascarid Nematodes

o C7.14 Camallanid Nematodes

o C7.15 Philometrid Nematodes

o C7.16 Anguillicolid Nematodes

o C7.17 Trichosomonoidid Nematodes

o C7.18 Pentastomids

o C7.19 Acanthocephalans

o C7.20 Copepods

o C7.21 Isopods

o C7.22 Branchiurans

- C8 Myxozoan and Coccidial Diseases

o C8.1 Myxozoan (General)

o C8.2 Enteromyxum spp.

o C8.3 Henneguya spp.

o C8.4 Myxobolus spp.

o C8.5 Ceratonova and Ceratomyxa spp.

o C8.6 Hoferellus spp.

o C8.7 Kudoa spp.

o C8.8 Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae

o C8.9 Eimeria spp.

o C8.10 Cryptosporidium spp.

-

Appendices

o Appendix 1 - Conversions

o Appendix 2 - Common Disinfectants

o Appendix 3 - Fish Diagnostic Laboratories in the USA, by state

o Appendix 4 - Veterinary Training Programs in Aquatic Animal Medicine

About the Author

The editorsCatherine Hadfield, MA, VetMB, MRCVS, DACZM, DECZM (Zoo Health Management), is the Senior Veterinarian at the Seattle Aquarium in Seattle, Washington, USA.Leigh Clayton, DVM, DABVP (Avian Practice and Amphibian and Reptile Practice), eMBA, is the Vice President of Animal Care at the New England Aquarium in Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

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