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Cognitive Psychology and Its Implications


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Table of Contents

Preface.- 1. The Science of Cognition.- Motivations for Studying Cognitive Psychology.- The History of Cognitive Psychology.- Information Processing; The Communicative Neurons.- Organization of the Brain.- Methods in Cognitive Neuroscience.- 2. Perception.- Visual Perception in the Brain.- Visual Pattern Recognition.- Implications: Separating humans from BOTs.- Speech Recognition.- Feature Analysis of Speech.- Categorical Perception.- Context and Pattern Recognition.- Conclusions.- 3. Attention and Performance.- Serial Bottlenecks.- Auditory Attention.- Visual Attention.- Central Attention: Selecting Lines of Thought to Pursue.- Implications: Why is cell phone use and driving a dangerous combination?.- Conclusions.- 4. Mental Imagery.- Verbal Imagery Versus Visual Imagery.- Implications: Using brain activation to read people's minds.- Visual Imagery.- Conclusions: Visual Perception and Visual Imagery.- 5. Representation of Knowledge.- Knowledge and Regions of the Brain.- Memory for Meaningful Interpretations of Events.- Implications: Mnemonic techniques for remembering vocabulary items.- Propositional Representations.- Embodied Cognition.- Conceptual Knowledge.- Conclusions.- 6. Human Memory: Encoding and Storage.- Memory and the Brain.- Sensory Memory Holds Information Briefly.- Working Memory Holds the Information Needed to Perform a Task.- Activation and Long-Term Memory.- Practice and Memory Strength.- Factors Influencing Memory.- Implications: How does the method of loci help us organize recall?.- Flashbulb Memories.- Conclusions.- 7. Human Memory: Retention and Retrieval.- Are Memories Really Forgotten?.- The Retention Function.- How Interference Affects Memory.- Retrieval and Inference.- Implications: How have advertisers used knowledge of cognitive psychology?.- Associative Structure and Retrieval.- The Hippocampal Formation and Amnesia.- Implicit Versus Explicit Memory.- Conclusions: The Many Varieties of Memory in the Brain.- 8. Problem Solving.- The Nature of Problem Solving.- Problem-Solving Operators.- Operator Selection.- Problem Representation.- Set Effects.- Conclusions.- Appendix: Solutions.- 9. Expertise.- Brain Changes with Skill Acquisition.- General Characteristics of Skill Acquisition.- The Nature of Expertise.- Implications: Computers achieve chess expertise differently than humans.- Transfer of Skill.- Theory of Identical Elements.- Educational Implications.- Conclusions.- 10. Reasoning.- Reasoning and the Brain.- Reasoning About Conditionals.- Deductive Reasoning: Reasoning About Quantifiers.- Inductive Reasoning and Hypothesis Testing.- Implications: How convincing is a 90% result?.- Dual-Process Theories.- Conclusions.- 11. Decision Making.- The Brain and Decision Making.- Probabilistic Judgment.- Making Decisions Under Uncertainty.- Implications: Why are adolescents more likely to make bad decisions?.- Conclusions.- 12. Language Structure.- Language and the Brain.- The Field of Linguistics.- Syntactic Formalisms.- What is So Special About Human Language?.- Implications: Ape language and the ethics of experimentation.- The Relation Between Language and Thought.- Language Acquisition.- Conclusions: The Uniqueness of Language: A Summary.- 13. Language Comprehension.- Brain and Language Comprehension.- Parsing.- Implications: Intelligent chatterboxes.- Utilization.- Text Processing.- Situation Models.- Conclusions.- 14. Individual Differences in.

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