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College Physics


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Table of Contents

Part I: MECHANICS. 1. Introduction. Standards of Length, Mass, and Time. The Building Blocks of Matter. Dimensional Analysis. Uncertainty in Measurement and Significant Figures. Conversion of Units. Estimates and Order-of-Magnitude Calculations. Coordinate Systems. Trigonometry. 2. Motion in One Dimension. Displacement. Velocity. Acceleration. Motion Diagrams. One-Dimensional Motion with Constant Acceleration. Freely Falling Objects. 3. Vectors and Two-Dimensional Motion. Vectors and Their Properties. Components of a Vector. Displacement, Velocity, and Acceleration in Two Dimensions. Motion in Two Dimensions. Relative Velocity. 4. The Laws of Motion. Forces. Newton's First Law. Newton's Second Law. Newton's Third Law. Applications of Newton's Laws. Forces of Friction. 5. Energy. Work. Kinetic Energy and the Work-Energy Theorem. Gravitational Potential Energy. Spring Potential Energy. Systems and Energy Conservation. Power. Work Done by a Varying Force. 6. Momentum and Collisions. Momentum and Impulse. Conservation of Momentum. Glancing Collisions. Rocket Propulsion. 7. Rotational Motion and the Law of Gravity. Angular Speed and Angular Acceleration. Rotational Motion Under Constant Angular Acceleration. Relations Between Angular and Linear Quantities. Centripetal Acceleration. Newtonian Gravitation. Kepler's Laws. 8. Rotational Equilibrium and Rotational Dynamics. Torque. Torque and the Two Conditions for Equilibrium. The Center of Gravity. Examples of Objects in Equilibrium. Relationship Between Torque and Angular Acceleration. Rotational Kinetic Energy. Angular Momentum. 9. Solids and Fluids. States of Matter. Density and Pressure. The Deformation of Solids. Variation of Pressure with Depth. Pressure Measurements. Buoyant Forces and Archimedes' Principle. Fluids in Motion. Other Applications of Fluid Dynamics. Surface Tension, Capillary Action, and Viscous Fluid Flow. Transport Phenomena. Part II: THERMODYNAMICS. 10. Thermal Physics. Temperature and the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics. Thermometers and Temperature Scales. Thermal Expansion of Solids and Liquids. Macroscopic Description of an Ideal Gas. The Kinetic Theory of Gases. 11. Energy in Thermal Processes Heat and Internal Energy. Specific Heat. Calorimetry. Latent Heat and Phase Change. Energy Transfer. Global Warming and Greenhouse Gases. 12. The Laws of Thermodynamics Work in Thermodynamic Processes. The First Law of Thermodynamics. Thermal Processes. Heat Engines and the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Entropy. Human Metabolism. Part III: VIBRATIONS AND WAVES. 13. Vibrations and Waves. Hooke's Law. Elastic Potential Energy. Comparing Simple Harmonic Motion with Uniform Circular Motion. Position, Velocity, and Acceleration as a Function of Time. Motion of a Pendulum. Damped Oscillations. Waves. Frequency, Amplitude, and Wavelength. The Speed of Waves on Strings. Interference of Waves. Reflection of Waves. 14. Sound. Producing a Sound Wave. Characteristics of Sound Waves. The Speed of Sound. Energy and Intensity of Sound Waves. Spherical and Plane Waves. The Doppler Effect. Interference of Sound Waves. Standing Waves. Forced Vibrations and Resonance. Standing Waves in Air Columns. Beats. Quality of Sound. The Ear. Part IV: ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM. 15. Electric Forces and Electric Fields. Properties of Electric Charges. Insulators and Conductors. Coulomb's Law. The Electric Field. Electric Field Lines. Conductors in Electrostatic Equilibrium. The Millikan Oil-Drop Experiment. The Van de Graaff Generator. Electric Flux and Gauss's Law. 16. Electrical Energy and Capacitance. Electric Potential Energy and Electric Potential. Electric Potential and Potential Energy Due to Point Charges. Potentials and Charged Conductors. Equipotential Surfaces. Applications. Capacitance. The Parallel-Plate Capacitor. Combinations of Capacitors. Energy Stored in a Charged Capacitor. Capacitors with Dielectrics. 17. Current and Resistance Electric Current. A Microscopic View: Current and Drift Speed. Current and Voltage Measurements In Circuits. Resistance, Resistivity, and Ohm's Law. Temperature Variation of Resistance. Electrical Energy and Power. Superconductors. Electrical Activity in the Heart. 18. Direct-Current Circuits Sources of emf. Resistors in Series. Resistors in Parallel. Kirchhoff's Rules and Complex DC Circuits. RC Circuits. Household Circuits. Electrical Safety. Conduction of Electrical Signals by Neurons. 19. Magnetism Magnets. Earth's Magnetic Field. Magnetic Fields. Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor. Torque on a Current Loop and Electric Motors. Motion of a Charged Particle in a Magnetic Field. Magnetic Field of a Long, Straight Wire and Ampere's Law. Magnetic Force Between Two Parallel Conductors. Magnetic Fields of Current Loops and Solenoids. Magnetic Domains. 20. Induced Voltages and Inductance. Induced emf and Magnetic Flux. Faraday's Law of Induction and Lenz's Law. Motional emf. Generators. Self-Inductance. RL Circuits. Energy Stored in a Magnetic Field. 21. Alternating-Current Circuits and Electromagnetic Waves. Resistors in an AC Circuit. Capacitors in an AC Circuit. Inductors in an AC Circuit. The RLC Series Circuit. Power in an AC Circuit. Resonance in a Series RLC Circuit. The Transformer. Maxwell's Predictions. Hertz's Confirmation of Maxwell's Predictions. Production of Electromagnetic Waves by an Antenna. Properties of Electromagnetic Waves. The Spectrum of Electromagnetic Waves. The Doppler Effect for Electromagnetic Waves. Part V: LIGHT AND OPTICS. 22. Reflection and Refraction of Light. The Nature of Light. Reflection and Refraction. The Law of Refraction. Dispersion and Prisms. The Rainbow. Huygens' Principle. Total Internal Reflection. 23. Mirrors and Lenses. Flat Mirrors. Images Formed by Concave Mirrors. Convex Mirrors and Sign Conventions. Images Formed by Refraction. Atmospheric Refraction. Thin Lenses. Lens and Mirror Aberrations. 24. Wave Optics. Conditions for Interference. Young's Double-Slit Experiment. Change of Phase Due to Reflection. Interference in Thin Films. Using Interference to Read CDs and DVDs. Diffraction. Single-Slit Diffraction. The Diffraction Grating. Polarization of Light Waves. 25. Optical Instruments. The Camera. The Eye. The Simple Magnifier. The Compound Microscope. The Telescope. Resolution of Single-Slit and Circular Apertures. The Michelson Interferometer. Part VI: MODERN PHYSICS. 26. Relativity. Galilean Relativity. The Speed of Light. Einstein's Principle of Relativity. Consequences of Special Relativity. Relativistic Momentum. Relative Velocity in Special Relativity. Relativistic Energy and the Equivalence of Mass and Energy. General Relativity. 27. Quantum Physics Blackbody Radiation and Planck's Hypothesis. The Photoelectric Effect and the Particle Theory of Light. X-Rays. Diffraction of X-Rays by Crystals. The Compton Effect. The Dual Nature of Light and Matter. The Wave Function. The Uncertainty Principle. 28. Atomic Physics. Early Models of the Atom. Atomic Spectra. The Bohr Model. Quantum Mechanics and the Hydrogen Atom. The Exclusion Principle and the Periodic Table. Characteristic X-Rays. Atomic Transitions and Lasers. 29. Nuclear Physics. Some Properties of Nuclei. Binding Energy. Radioactivity. The Decay Processes. Natural Radioactivity. Nuclear Reactions. Medical Applications of Radiation. 30. Nuclear Energy and Elementary Particles. Nuclear Fission. Nuclear Fusion. Elementary Particles and the Fundamental Forces. Positrons and Other Antiparticles. Classification of Particles. Conservation Laws. The Eightfold Way. Quarks and Color. Electroweak Theory and the Standard Model. The Cosmic Connection. Unanswered Questions in Cosmology. Problems and Perspectives. Appendix A: Mathematics Review. Appendix B: An Abbreviated Table of Isotopes. Appendix C: Some Useful Tables. Appendix D: SI Units. Answers to Quick Quizzes, Example Questions, Odd-Numbered Warm-Up Exercises, Conceptual Questions, and Problems. Index.

About the Author

Chris Vuille is an associate professor of physics at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach, Florida, the world's premier institution for aviation higher education. He received his doctorate in physics at the University of Florida in 1989. While he has taught courses at all levels, including postgraduate, his primary interest and responsibility has been the delivery of introductory physics. He has received a number of awards for teaching excellence, including the Senior Class Appreciation Award (three times). He conducts research in general relativity, astrophysics, cosmology, and quantum theory and was a participant in the JOVE program, a special three-year NASA grant program during which he studied properties of neutron stars. His work has appeared in a number of scientific journals and in ANALOG SCIENCE FICTION/SCIENCE FACT magazine. In addition to this textbook, he is the coauthor of ESSENTIALS OF COLLEGE PHYSICS. Dr. Vuille enjoys playing tennis, swimming, and playing classical piano; he is a former chess champion of St. Petersburg and Atlanta. His wife, Dianne Kowing, is an optometrist for a local VA clinic. Teen daughter Kira Vuille-Kowing is a meteorology/communications double major at ERAU and a recent graduate of her father's first-year physics course. He has two sons--fifteen-year-old Christopher, a cellist and fisherman, and six-year-old James, an avid reader of Disney comics. Raymond A. Serway received his doctorate at Illinois Institute of Technology and is Professor Emeritus at James Madison University. In 2011, he was awarded an honorary doctorate degree from his alma mater, Utica College. He received the 1990 Madison Scholar Award at James Madison University, where he taught for 17 years. Dr. Serway began his teaching career at Clarkson University, where he conducted research and taught from 1967 to 1980. He was the recipient of the Distinguished Teaching Award at Clarkson University in 1977 and the Alumni Achievement Award from Utica College in 1985. As Guest Scientist at the IBM Research Laboratory in Zurich, Switzerland, he worked with K. Alex Muller, 1987 Nobel Prize recipient. Dr. Serway also was a visiting scientist at Argonne National Laboratory, where he collaborated with his mentor and friend, the late Sam Marshall. In addition to PHYSICS FOR SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS, Dr. Serway is the coauthor of PRINCIPLES OF PHYSICS, Fifth Edition; COLLEGE PHYSICS, Ninth Edition; ESSENTIALS OF COLLEGE PHYSICS; MODERN PHYSICS, Third Edition; and the high school textbook PHYSICS, published by Holt McDougal. In addition, Dr. Serway has published more than 40 research papers in the field of condensed matter physics and has given more than 60 presentations at professional meetings. Dr. Serway and his wife Elizabeth enjoy traveling, playing golf, fishing, gardening, singing in the church choir, and especially spending quality time with their four children, nine grandchildren, and a recent great-grandson.

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