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Colour Reproduction in Electronic Imaging Systems
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With the move of cinema away from film, the adoption of electronic-based production throughout all media is now complete. In order to exploit its advantages, the accurate definition, measurement and reproduction of colour has become more important than ever to achieve the best fidelity of colour reproduction. This book is concerned with providing readers with all they need to know about colour: how it is perceived and described, how it is measured and generated and how it is reproduced in colour systems. It serves as both a tutorial and a reference book, defining what we mean by colour and providing an explanation of the proper derivation of chromaticity charts and through to the means of ensuring accurate colour management. Key Features: * Addresses important theory and common misconceptions in colour science and reproduction, from the perception and characteristics of colour to the practicalities of its rendering in the fields of television, photography and cinematography * Offers a clear treatment of the CIE chromaticity charts and their related calculations, supporting discussion on system primaries, their colour gamuts and the derivation of their contingent red, green and blue camera spectral sensitivities * Reviews the next state-of-the-art developments in colour reproduction beyond current solutions, from Ultra-High Definition Television for the 2020s to laser projectors with unprecedented colour range for the digital cinema * Includes a companion website hosting a workbook consisting of invaluable macro-enabled data worksheets; JPEG files containing images referred to in the book, including colour bars and grey scale charts to establish perceived contrast range under different environmental conditions; and, guides to both the workbook and JPEG files
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Table of Contents

Preface xiii Acknowledgements xv About the Companion Website xix Introductions xxi The Book xxi The Colour Reproduction Workbook xxii Part One COLOUR PERCEPTION, CHARACTERISTICS AND DEFINITION 1 1 The Perception of Colour 3 1.1 Introduction 3 1.2 Setting the Scene 3 1.3 Characterising the Responses of the Eye to Light 8 1.4 The Three Characteristics of the Eye Relevant to Reproduction 10 1.5 The Quantitative Response or Tonal Range of the Eye 10 1.6 The Qualitative Response of the Eye 13 2 Mapping, Mixing and Categorising Colours 19 2.1 Primary Colours 19 2.2 Colour Mixing 31 2.3 Colour in Three Dimensions 34 2.4 Colour Terminology 37 2.5 Categorising Colours 38 2.6 The Effects of Illumination on the Perception of Colour 42 Part Two THE MEASUREMENT AND GENERATION OF COLOUR 43 3 A Practical Approach to the Measurement of Colour 45 3.1 The Fundamentals of Colour Measurement 45 3.2 Colour Matching Functions 46 3.3 Measuring Colour with the CMFs 51 3.4 Chromaticity Diagrams 52 4 Colour Measurement Standardisation The CIE System of Colour Measurement 61 4.1 Limitations of the Fundamental Approach to Colour Measurement 61 4.2 The CIE 61 4.3 The CIE 1931 Standard Observer 62 4.4 The CIE 1931 X, Y, Z System of Colour Measurement 64 4.5 Transforming the CIE X, Y, Z Parameters to Perceptually Related Parameters 72 4.6 The CIE 1976 UCS Diagram 72 4.7 The CIE 1976 (L*, u*, v*) Colour Space 76 4.8 Surface Colours within the LUV Colour Space 84 4.9 Limitations of the LUV Colour Space as an Accurate Colour Appearance Model 91 5 Colour Measurement and Perception 97 5.1 Chromatic Adaptation 97 5.2 Metermerism 98 5.3 Quantifying Chromatic Adaptation 102 6 Generating Coloured Light 105 6.1 Introduction 105 6.2 The Physics of Light Generation 105 6.3 Incandescence: Light from Heat Blackbody or Planckian Radiation 106 6.4 Colour Temperature 111 6.5 Luminescence 113 6.6 Electroluminescence 114 6.7 Fluorescence 126 Part Three THE CONCEPTS OF COLOUR REPRODUCTION 131 7 Sources of Illumination 133 7.1 Overview 133 7.2 Illuminant Colour Rendering Quality 134 7.3 Daylight 143 7.4 Incandescent-based Lamps 148 7.5 Electrical Discharge-based Lamps 150 7.6 LED Lamps 155 7.7 Summary of Sources of Illumination 158 8 The Essential Elements of Colour Reproduction 161 8.1 The Basic Reproduction System 161 8.2 The Camera 162 8.3 Display Devices 165 8.4 Reconciling Minimum Image Resolution with Maximum Perceivable Resolution 171 9 Colorimetry in Colour Reproduction 175 9.1 The Relationship between the Display Primaries and the Camera Spectral Sensitivities 175 9.2 The Choice of Reproduction Display Primaries 177 9.3 Derivation of Colour Reproduction System Camera Spectral Sensitivities 181 10 Appraising the Reproduced Image 185 10.1 Introduction 185 10.2 The Environmental Lighting 186 10.3 Reflections from the Display 187 10.4 Image Size 187 10.5 Managing the Viewing Environment 187 10.6 System Design Parameters 188 Part Four THE FUNDAMENTALS OF COLOUR REPRODUCTION 189 11 System White and White Balance 193 11.1 System Reference White 193 11.2 White Balance 195 11.3 Adapting to Scenes with Different Illuminant SPDs 200 12 Colorimetric Processing 203 12.1 Introduction 203 12.2 Manipulating the Colour Space Chromaticity Gamut Transformation 205 12.3 Gamut Mapping 213 12.4 A Colorimetrically Ideal Set of Camera Spectral Sensitivities 216 12.5 An Ideal Media Neutral Colour Reproduction System 222 12.6 Using System Primaries or Device-Independent Encoding 223 13 Preserving Tonal Relationships Tone Reproduction and Contrast Laws 225 13.1 Introduction 225 13.2 Terms and Definitions 226 13.3 Contrast Ranges 229 13.4 Gamma Correction 238 13.5 Standard or Reference Displays 251 13.6 Masking Artefacts 252 13.7 Matching the Contrast Law to the Viewing Environment 257 13.8 Overall Opto-electro Transfer Characteristics in Actual Reproduction Systems 260 13.9 Producing a Greyscale Test Chart 261 14 Storage and Conveyance of Colour Signals Encoding Colour Signals 271 14.1 Introduction 271 14.2 The Imperatives for Encoding RGB Colour Signals 272 14.3 System Compatibility and Retention of Colour Balance 275 14.4 A Simple Constant Luminance Encoding System 280 14.5 Exploiting the Spatial Characteristics of the Eye 282 14.6 A Practical Constant Luminance System 283 14.7 A Non-Constant Luminance System 285 14.8 The Ramifications of the Failure of Constant Luminance 287 15 Specifying a Colour Reproduction System 289 15.1 Introduction 289 15.2 Deriving the Specifications 289 15.3 A Representative Closed Colour Reproduction System Specification 291 Part Five THE PRACTICALITIES OF COLOUR REPRODUCTION TELEVISION, PHOTOGRAPHY AND CINEMATOGRAPHY 295 Part Five A COLOUR REPRODUCTION IN TELEVISION 299 16 The Television System and the Image Capture Operation 301 16.1 The Television System Workflow 301 16.2 The Television System Signal Path 303 16.3 The Television Standards Organisations 304 17 A Brief History of Colour in Television 307 17.1 The Beginnings 307 17.2 The NTSC, PAL and SECAM Colour Television Systems 309 17.3 The Introduction of Digital Television 324 17.4 The Rise of High Definition Television 329 18 Lighting for Colour Television in the 2010s 331 18.1 Background 331 18.2 The EBU Television Lighting Consistency Index 2012 332 18.3 The ColorChecker Chart 332 18.4 The TLCI Standard Television Reproduction System Model 333 18.5 Selecting a Colour Metric for the TLCI (EBU Tech 3354) 337 18.6 Measuring the TLCI of Luminaires (EBU Tech 3355) 338 19 Colour in Television in the 2010s The High Definition Colour Television System 341 19.1 The High Definition System Specification 341 19.2 Evaluating the Performance of the HDTV System 348 19.3 Appraisal of the Rec 709 Recommendation 357 20 Colour in Television in the 2020s 359 20.1 The Potential for Improved Colour Reproduction 359 20.2 Colour Specification of a Practical Ideal Colour Television System 360 20.3 Acknowledging the Requirement to Expand the Colour Gamut 371 20.4 UHDTV The ITU-R BT.2020 Recommendation 382 21 Colour Management in Television 389 21.1 Introduction 389 21.2 Scene Illumination 390 21.3 The Vision Control Operation 391 21.4 The Vision Control Room Environment 391 21.5 The Line-up Operation 396 21.6 Capturing the Scene 399 21.7 Displaying the Image 401 Part Five B COLOUR REPRODUCTION IN PHOTOGRAPHY 403 22 An Overview of the Photographic System and ItsWorkflow 405 22.1 Introduction 405 22.2 An Overview of the Workflow 405 22.3 The Requirement for Technical Standards in Photography 409 23 The Printing Process 413 23.1 Introduction 413 23.2 Conceptual Considerations in Photographic Printer Design 413 23.3 Colour Fundamentals in Printing 416 23.4 Deriving a Model for Colour Half-tone Printing 422 23.5 Practical Printer Performance 425 23.6 Conclusions 437 24 Colour Spaces in Photography 439 24.1 Introduction 439 24.2 Colour Spaces in Image Capture 439 24.3 Colour Spaces in the Computer 449 24.4 Colour Spaces in Displays 454 24.5 Printer Colour Spaces 455 24.6 Conclusions 456 25 Component and File Formats 457 25.1 Introduction 457 25.2 A Review of Component Formats 457 25.3 File Formats 459 26 Appraising the Rendered Image 467 26.1 Introduction 467 26.2 The Monitor and its Environment 467 26.3 Reference Conditions 468 26.4 Conditions for Appraising and Comparing Images ISO 3664 470 26.5 Colour Proofing 476 26.6 Conditions for Displays for Colour Proofing ISO 12646:2008 476 26.7 Summary 479 27 Colour Management in the Workflow Infrastructure 483 27.1 Introduction to Colour Management 483 27.2 Establishing the Requirements of a Colour Management Infrastructure Strategy 485 27.3 The International Colour Consortium 487 27.4 The ICC System in Practice 491 27.5 Summary 493 28 Colour Management in Equipment and Scene Capture 495 28.1 Why there is Sometimes a Failure to Match Scene, Display and Print 495 28.2 The Exercise of Matching Scene, Display and Print 496 28.3 The Matching Tests 497 28.4 Image Capture 504 29 Colour Management in the Desktop Workflow 507 29.1 Introduction 507 29.2 Establishing the Desktop Working Practice Colour Management Parameters 509 29.3 Image Preview 522 29.4 Colour Managing Raw Files 524 29.5 Matching the Display to the Scene 526 29.6 Previewing the Soft Proof 539 29.7 Matching the Print to the Display and the Scene 542 29.8 Summary of Activities to Assist in Obtaining Good Colour Reproduction 550 30 Colour Management by Profile Maintenance 551 30.1 The Requirement to Incorporate New Profiles 551 30.2 Preparing to Generate a Profile 552 30.3 Generating Profiles 553 Part Five C COLOUR REPRODUCTION IN DIGITAL CINEMATOGRAPHY 559 Acronyms 560 31 The Evolution of Digital Cinema 563 31.1 Background 563 31.2 Workflow at Project Commencement 565 31.3 Common Goals of the Specifications 566 31.4 The Digital Cinematographic Systems Specifications 566 32 Colour in Cinematic Production The Academy Color Encoding System 569 32.1 Introduction 569 32.2 System Definition 569 32.3 The ACES Colour Space 572 32.4 Reference Input Capture Device (RICD) 576 32.5 The Input Device Transform 578 32.6 An IIF System Configuration for Viewing the Graded Signals Defined in the ACES Colour Space 579 32.7 The Reference Rendering Transform 583 32.8 The Reference Display and Review Room 583 32.9 The IIF Output Device Transforms (ODT) 585 32.10 Colour Management in Production and Post 587 33 Colour in the Cinema The Digital Cinema System 589 33.1 Introduction 589 33.2 System Requirements 589 33.3 Image Structure 590 33.4 The D-Cinema Encoding Colour Space 590 33.5 DCDM Interfaces 599 33.6 Distribution 601 34 Colour in Cinematography in the 2010s 603 34.1 Progress in Adopting the Digital Specifications 603 34.2 The ACES in the 2010s 604 34.3 Production and Post System Configuration and Workflows 615 APPENDICES 629 A Photometric Units 631 A.1 The Physical Aspects of Light 631 A.2 Power in a Three-Dimensional Environment 632 A.3 A Useful Theoretical Source of White Light 634 A.4 The Physiological Aspects of Light 634 A.5 Photometry 636 B The CIE XYZ Primaries 641 B.1 Deriving the Chromaticities of the CIE XYZ Primaries from CIE RGB Primaries 641 B.2 The XYZ Primaries Located on the CIE RGB Primaries Chromaticity Diagram 644 C The Bradford Colour Adaptation Transform 645 C.1 The Standard Bradford Transform 645 C.2 The Linear or Simplified Bradford Transform 647 D The Semiconductor Junction 649 E Light Amplification in Lasers 651 E.1 Boltzmann Distributions and Thermal Equilibrium 651 E.2 The Interaction of Light with Matter 652 E.3 Selection Rules 654 E.4 Creating a Population Inversion 654 E.5 Three-Level Lasers 655 E.6 Four-Level Lasers 656 F Deriving Camera Spectral Sensitivities 659 F.1 General Solution for Deriving the Camera Spectral Sensitivities from the Chromaticity Coordinates of the Display Primaries in Terms of the CIE Colour Matching Functions 659 G Chromaticity Gamut Transformation 661 G.1 Introduction 661 G.2 Procedure 661 H Deriving the Standard Formula for Gamma Correction 667 H.1 General 667 H.2 Establishing the Gamma Correction Parameters for the General Situation 668 H.3 Calculating the Gamma Correction Parameters for a Particular Situation 670 H.4 Specifying the Opto-Digital Transfer Characteristic of a Colour Reproduction System 671 H.5 Practical Calculations 671 I CIE Colour Matching Functions 673 I.1 Values for a 2 Degree Field 673 J Guide to the Colour Reproduction Workbook 677 J.1 Introduction 677 J.2 Structure of the Workbook 677 J.3 Some General Guidance on Using the Worksheets 678 J.4 The Data Worksheets 679 J.5 The Chapter Worksheets 682 References 693 Index 697

About the Author

Michael S. Tooms has had a career in the television industry spanning 45 years, from operations and design to senior and project management roles. He was responsible for the conception, outline, design and project management of a number of multi-million pound television centre projects, most notably working for Granada Television, TV3 Scansat, ITV, Wharf Cable, BT and Spectrum Consultants/Siemens among others. He has served on industry standards committees responsible for developing new television system specifications and lectured on colour reproduction for the Royal Television Society, the Royal Photographic Society and the British Kinematograph Sound and Television Society. He represented ITV on the EBU Colour Primaries committee and was a founding member of the UK Independent Broadcast Authority s Quality Control Section, a body that was concerned with classifying and regulating colour reproduction standards in broadcasting.

Reviews

Michael Toom's book is the technical manual about colour that every colour scientist or engineer working in professional digital imaging has ever dreamt of reading. Not only it does cover and elegantly narrates the generic aspects of the discipline and the pragmatic reasons behind many technical and/or historical choices. It's also a fundamental compendium of detailed formulae, hard to find at all (if ever, well organized, in one piecework). - Walter Arrighetti, Frame by Frame Italia srl

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