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The Competitive Destination


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Table of Contents

1: The Evolving Nature of Competition and Sustainability a: Destination Competitiveness: Its Nature and Its Evolution b: Components of the Competitive Universe c: The Dimensions of Tourism Competitiveness d: Economic Competitiveness e: Political Competitiveness f: The Renaissance of the City-State g: Socio-Cultural Competitiveness h: Technological Competitiveness j: Environmental Competitiveness k: Some General observations on how the Competitive Environment is evolving l: The Evolution of Travel Experience Demanded m: Demographics are Redefining the Foundations of Competitiveness n: Crisis and Renewal are Being Forced Upon Destinations as a Strategy forCompetitiveness Part I: The Competitive Tourism Destination 1.1: The Competitive Destination 1.2: Competitiveness: Theoretical and Managerial Dimensions 1.3: What is This Thing Called Competitiveness? 1.4: A Framework for Understanding Competition 1.5: Competitiveness in the Service Sector 1.6: The Nature of Comparative and Competitive Advantage in Tourism 1.7: Linking Destination Competitiveness to Performance 1.8: Tourism Markets 1.9: Target Market Strategy 1.10: Destination Performance 1.11: Summarizing the Steps to Destination Success 1.12: The Philosophy of Sustainable Competitiveness for Tourism Destination Development 1.13: Charting the Destination's Sustainable Course: Crafting a Vision and Establishing Goals 1.14: Tourism Planning in the Context of Overall Social and Economic Development 1.15: Allocating Resources: Tourism's Share Part II: The Sustainable Tourism Destination 2.1: The Birth and Evolution of Sustainable Tourism 2.2: Sustainable Tourism: a Comprehensive Examination 2.3: The Parallel Emergence of Ecotourism 2.4: WTO and Ecotourism 2.5: Some Concluding Observations 2.6: Managing Tourism from an ST Perspective 2.7: Ecological Sustainability 2.8: Economic Sustainability 2.9: Socio-Cultural Sustainability 2.10: Political Sustainability 2.11: Achieving Sustainable Tourism 2.12: Creating and Managing a Sustainable/Ecotourism Destination 2.13: In Conclusion Part II: A Model of Destination Competitiveness 3.1: The Origins of a Conceptual Model 3.2: An Overview of the Model 3.3: The Global (Macro) Environment 3.4: The Competitive (Micro) Environment 3.5: Core Resources and Attractors 3.6: Supporting Factors and Resources 3.7: Destination Policy, Planning and Development 3.8: Destination Management 3.9: Qualifying and Amplifying Determinants Part IV: The Macro Environment: Global Forces Shaping World Tourism 4.1: Global Forces: An Onion Skin Taxonomy 4.2: The Outer Layer 4.3: The Intermediate Layer 4.4: The Inner Layer 4.5: The Interdependence of Global Forces 4.6: Analyzing and Understanding Global Forces 4.7: Global Forces and Tourism Demand 4.8: Global Forces and Tourism Supply 4.9: Assessing the Impact of Global Forces on Destination Performance 4.10: Global Forces and Destination Policy 4.11: Global Forces and Destination Management 4.12: Global Forces and Destination Organization Part V: The Competitive (Micro) Environment: The Destination and the Tourism System 5.1: Suppliers 5.2: Tourism and Hospitality Enterprises 5.3: Marketing Intermediaries and Facilitators: the Industry's Lubricants 5.4: Customers: The Ultimate Driving Force 5.5: Related and Supporting Industries 5.6: Destination Management Organisations 5.7: Publics: Stakeholders and Watchdogs 5.8: The Destination: Internal Environment and Modus Operandi 5.9: Other Competing Destinations 5.10: The Tourism System: Integrative Impacts Part VI: Core Resources and Attractors: The Essence of Destination Appeal 6.1: Destination Physiography and Climate: the Natural Edge 6.2: Destination Culture: the Lure of Human Distinctiveness 6.3: The Elements of Culture 6.4: What is Culture? 6.5: Major Dimensions of Cultural Attractiveness 6.6: Forms of Culture 6.7: Culture and Consumption 6.8: Activities: The Nike 'JUST DO IT' Mentality of Travellers 6.9: Special Events: in Search of the Stroke of Genius That Creates Destination Uniqueness 6.10: From Local Insight & Entrepreneurship 6.11: Entertainment - the Show Must Go On! 6.12: Developing and Managing 'Entertainment Tourism' 6.13: Tourism Superstructure: 'If you build it, they will come!' 6.14: Market Ties: the Ties that Bind 6.15: Personal Ties 6.16: Organizational/Professional Ties Part VII: Supporting Factors and Resources: Elements Which Enhance Destination Appeal 7.1: Infrastructure: Providing a Foundation for Successful Tourism 7.2: Accessibility: Addressing the Curse or Blessing of Location 7.3: Facilitating Resources: Human, Knowledge, and Financial Capital 7.4: Hospitality: Resident Attitudes Towards Tourists and Tourism 7.5: Enterprise: the Generation of Human Energy 7.6: Political Will: is Tourism Part of the Political Landscape? Part VIII: Destination Policy, Planning and Development 8.1: The Nature of Tourism Policy, Planning, and Development 8.2: Distinguishing Between 'Destination Policy Planning and Development' (DPPD) andDestination Management (DM) 8.3: Tourism Policy: a Definition 8.4: Why is Tourism Policy Important? 8.5: Areas Addressed by Tourism Policy 8.6: Types and Levels of 'Tourism Destinations' 8.7: Tourism Policy: Context, Structure, Content, and Process 8.8: The Context of Tourism Policy 8.9: The Components of Tourism Policy 8.10: Destination Positioning/Branding 8.11: Destination Development 8.12: Destination Audit 8.13: Relating Policy to Strategy and the Development Process 8.14: Supply Development Strategies 8.15: Demand Development (Marketing) Strategies 8.16: Organizational and Development Policy Part IX: Destination Management: The Key to Maintaining a Sustainable Competitive Advantage 9.1: The Process of Destination Management 9.2: Marketing (Promotion?) 9.3: Identification of Strategic Markets for the Destination 9.4: Measuring Destination Awareness and Image 9.5: The Monitoring of Destination Awareness and Image 9.6: Assessing Destination Brand Effectiveness 9.7: Developing Logos, Themes, and Advertising Support 9.8: Managing the Quality of Visitor Service and the Visitor Experience 9.9: Management Implications of Adapting a Quality of Experience Framework 9.10: Managing Information/Research (I/R) 9.11: Managing Inward I/R Flows 9.12: Managing Outward I/R Flows 9.13: Human Resource Development 9.14: Visitor Services and Visitor Management 9.15: Services and the Experience Economy 9.16: Systems for Visitor Management 9.17: Stewardship - Taking Care of the Tourism Resource Base 9.18: Mechanisms to Deal with Crises 9.19: Organizational Systems 9.20: Destination Stakeholders 9.21: Crisis Management Scenarios Part X: Qualifying and Amplifying Determinants: Parameters Which Define Destination Potential 10.1: Destination Location: Blessing or Curse? 10.2: Destination Safety: Security of Threat? 10.3: Destination Cost Levels: Reality or Perception? 10.4: Destination Interdependencies: Synergy or Substitute? 10.5: Destination Image: Perceptions of People and Place 10.6: Carrying Capacity: Hard and Soft Constraints to Growth Part XI: The Destination Audit: Putting the Model to Work 11.1: The Philosophy of the Audit Concept 11.2: The Nature of a Destination Audit 11.3: Preparing for a Destination Audit 11.4: Implementing the Audit 11.5: Destination Diagnostics

About the Author

G. I. Crouch is at La Trobe University, Australia.


"An important and welcome contribution to the literature of tourism studies. Highly recommended". S A Schulman, Choice "This book is an articulate and valuable contribution to the tourism literature... It is likely to become a standard reference for many years to come." Geoffrey Wall, Tourism Recreation Research"

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