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Comprehensive HVAC System Design

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Table of Contents

PART I: FUNDAMENTALS OF DESIGN 1. Designing a HVAC System * Concept of Design * Factors in Design * Climatic Zones * Psychrometrics * Main Equipment * Associated Equipment * Ancillary Items * Typical Applications * Green Building * Summary 2. HVAC Fundamentals * Refrigerants: Their Need and Suitability * Refrigeration Cycle * Understanding Air Behaviour * Air Conditioning Systems * Heating Systems * Ventilation: Its Necessity * Air Conditioning vs Heating: Differences * Conclusion 3. Understanding Psychrometrics* Explaining Psychrometric Chart * Measuring Instruments * Definitions of Properties * Plotting on Psychrometric Chart * Air Conditioning Processes * Sensible Cooling Processes * Evaporative Cooling System * Applications * Dehumidification of Air * Applications of Dehumidification * Mixed Air Humidification (Winter) * 100% Outside Air Humidification * Annexure I(a): Psychrometric Chart Barometric * Pressure 29.92 IN, WG (FPS System) * Annexure I(b): Psychrometric Chart Barometric * Pressure 1 kg/cm2 (SI System) 4. Building Envelope * Permanent Construction * Temporary Structures * Structural Glazing * Basements * Structural Design for Foundations 5. Integration with Interiors* Role of Interiors in a Building * Understanding Meaningful Heights * Purpose and Types of False Ceilings * Integration with Other Services * Exposed Design * Summary 6. References for Architects* Contribution of the Building Design on the HVAC System * Significance of Building Materials * Effect of Glazing * Benefits of Insulation * Sizing Air Conditioning and Ventilation Systems * Air Cooled vs Water Cooled Systems * Types of Air Conditioning Systems * Space Requirement * Sizing Basement Spaces * Sizing Indoor Spaces * Sizing Outdoor Spaces * Annexure I: Heat Addition to Space 7. HVAC System: An Overview of Design * Sequence of Designing * Outside Conditions * Internal Heat Source * Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) * Inside Design Conditions * Other Factors Affecting Design * Sum Total of Heat Load * Standalone HVAC Equipment * Larger Direct Expansion (DX) Systems * Chilled Water and Hot Water Systems * Evaporative Cooling and Ventilation Systems PART II: HVAC SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT 8. Energy Conservation: Its Relevance * Philosophy of Energy Conservation * Overview on Conservation * Contributing Factors * Energy Efficient Design * Energy Saving Equipment * Maintenance of Systems * Benefits 9. Direct Expansion (DX) Equipment* Types of Direct Expansion (DX) Systems * DX Units (Air Cooled) * Types of Compressor * Air Cooled Non-ductable Units * Air Cooled Ductable Units * Water Cooled Ductable Units * VRF/VRV Systems * Conclusion 10. VRF/VRV System and Equipment * Definition of a VRF/VRV System * Types of Indoor Units * Outdoor Units * Refrigerant Piping * Electric Hookup * Air Distribution * Conclusion 11. Chilled Water Systems: An Overview* Concept of Chilled Water System * Capacity Range * Application Based Design * Major Components * Energy Saving Devices * Ancillaries * Summary 12. Chilling Units * Types of Chillers * Making of a Chiller (Compressor Type) * Making of a Chiller (Vapour Absorption Type) * Water Cooled Chillers * Vapour Absorption Chillers * Air Cooled Chillers * Making a Choice 13. Water Circulating System * Planning for a Good Design * Advantages of a Good Design * Types of Pumps * Pump Characteristics * Importance of Proper Selection * Problems with Faulty Selection * Solutions to Avoid Pitfalls * Functions of Circulating Systems * Summary 14. Water Cooling Devices* Purpose of Water Cooling Devices * Types of Water Cooling Devices * Characteristics of Cooling Devices * Suitability of Cooling Devices 15. Fans * Types of Fans * Important Characteristics * Fan Balancing * Applications 16. Air Handling Devices* Defining Air Handling Devices * Functions of Different Components * Types of Air Handling Units * Utility of Air Handling Units * Types of Fan Coil Units * Applications of Fan Coil Units 17. Thermal Storage Systems * Purpose of Thermal Storage * Defining Thermal Energy * Types of Systems * Functioning of a Thermal Storage System * Benefits * Sizing of a Thermal Storage System * Applications of a Thermal Storage System * Summary * Annexure I 18. Heating Systems: An Overview* Concept of a Heating System * Heating vs Air Conditioning: Differences * Capacity Range * Types of Heating Devices * Application Based Design * Design Features * Summary 19. Heating Equipment and Accessories* Types of Heating Systems * Hot Water Generating Equipment * Space Heating Equipment * Accessories for Oil Fired Boilers * Comparison of Boiler Efficiency * Applications 20. Comfort Cooling Systems and Devices * Defining Comfort Cooling * Cooling Devices * Earth Air Tunnels (EATs) * Comfort in the Monsoons * Applications 21. Ventilation Systems and Industrial Cooling * Defining Ventilation Function * Ventilation Equipment * Coolers and Scrubbers * Designing Ventilation Systems * Commercial Ventilation * Industrial Cooling/Ventilation * Smoke Exhaust 22. Energy Saving Devices and Emerging Technologies * Energy Conservation * Energy Conservation Devices * Emerging Technologies * Benefits * Applications 23. Electrical Equipment and Systems * Fundamentals of Electricity * Sources of Electric Supply * Power Distribution * Electric Switchgear Accessories * Electrical Accessories * Electric Panels * Controlled Devices (Induction Motors) * Low Voltage Devices (LVDs) 24. Standalone Controls* Defining Standalone Controls * Types of Controls * Functions of Controls * Types of Control Action * Sensors and Controlled Devices 25. Building Management Systems * Purpose of a Building Management System (BMS) * Defining Building Management System * Objectives of a Building Management System * Functions of a Building Management System * Building Management System Hardware * Functions of Hardware * Control Logic * Applications 26. Air Distribution Systems and Methods * Good Air Distribution: Its Importance * Evaluating External and Internal Factors * Major Components * Fundamentals of Good Air Movement * Annexure I(a) * Annexure I(b) 27. Water Circulating Systems and Methods* Piping Systems: Types and Uses * Valves * Main Accessories * Designing Efficient Piping Circuits * Reverse Return Water Flow System * Water Balancing 28. HVAC: Effects on Fire and Security* Fire and Smoke: A Cause for Concern * HVAC Ducts: A Source of Fire * Areas of Concern * Smoke Evacuation and Control * Smoke Detection Systems * Fire Fighting System * Close Circuit Television (CCTV) System * Other Security Devices PART III: SPECIFIC APPLICATIONS 29. Offices * Definition of Office * General Description of an Office * Types of Offices * Application-specific Features * Onwards: Actual Design 30. Hotels * Functions of a Hotel * Walk Through a Hotel * Size Matters * Categories of Hotels * Rating Systems * Operational Activities * Application-specific Features * Onwards: Actual Design 31. Health Care Facilities* Purpose of a Health Care Facility (HCF) * Glossary of Terms/Activities * Types of Health Care Facilities * Walk Through * Application-specific Features * Onwards: Actual Design 32. Various Gathering Places * Defining Places of Gathering * Specific Needs * Application-specific Features * Onwards: Actual Design 33. Video and Recording Studios * Sizes and Functions * Video Studio * Sound Studio * Application-specific Features * Onwards: Actual Design 34. Clean Rooms* Concept and Purpose of Clean Rooms * Levels of Cleanliness * Typical Features of Clean Spaces * Application-specific HVAC Features * Onwards: Actual Design * Annexure I 35. Restaurants/Shopping Establishments and Malls * Types of Restaurants * Types of Shopping Establishments * Specific Needs (Restaurants) * Specific Needs (Shopping Malls) * Onwards: Actual Design 36. Educational Institutes* Types of Educational Institutes * Types of Facilities: Size and Activities * Application-specific Needs * Onwards: Actual Design 37. Research Institutes * Defining Research Institutes * Supplementary Activities * Specific Needs * Onwards: Actual Design 38. Pharmaceutical Industry * General Guidelines * Specific Needs * Onwards: Actual Design 39. Electronics and Other Industries * Variety in Application * Specific Needs * Onwards: Actual Design 40. Airports * Purpose of an Airport * Range of Activities: Domestic Terminal * Range of Activities: International Terminal * Specific Needs * Onwards: Actual Design 41. Residential Systems * Types of Residences * Specific Needs (Split System) * Specific Needs (Central System) * Onwards: Actual Design 42. Onwards: Actual Design * Types of Systems * DX System * VRF/VRV System * Chilled Water System * Chilled/Hot Water Piping * Ducting * Electrical System PART IV: SYSTEM DESIGN DATA 43. System Design: A Step-by-Step Guide * Sequence of Design * Benefits of Data in Part I * Benefits of Data in Part II * Utilising the Data in Part III * Utilising the Data in Part IV 44. Heat Loads: The First Step * Getting Started * Orientation of the Building * Calculating the Heat Loads * Process to Follow (Cooling) * Heat Load (Heating) * Heat Load (Evaporative Cooling) * Summary of Results * Related Data * Annexure I: Outside Design Data of Indian Cities * Annexure II: Outside Design Conditions (SAARC, Middle East and South East Asia) * Annexure III: Temperature Deviation Data Chart (Hourly) * Annexure IV: Apparatus Dew Point (ADP) Table * Annexure V(a): Psychrometric Chart Barometric * Pressure 29.92 IN, WG (FPS System) * Annexure V(b): Psychrometric Chart Barometric * Pressure 1 kg/cm2 (SI System) * Annexure VI: HVAC Design Basis * Annexure VII: Common Heat Transmission Factors (U Values) * Annexure VIII: Ventilation System Design Factors * Annexure IX(a): Heat Load Work Sheet * Annexure IX(b): Heat Load Work Sheet (for Computor) * Annexure IX(c): Cooling Load Estimate * Annexure IX(d): Heating Load Estimate * Annexure IX(e): Evaporating Cooling Load Estimate * Annexure IX(f): Heat Load Summary 45. Selecting an Appropriate System* Assessing the Requirement * Reviewing Available Equipment and System * Choice of System * Summary of System Selection * Annexure: Air Conditioning Plants (FPS and SI Units) 46. System Selection * Necessary Components * Split System * Ductable Split System * VRF/VRV System * Roof Top Air Conditioner System * Packaged Air Conditioner System * Condenserless Packaged System * Chilled Water System: Air Cooled * Chilled Water System: Water Cooled * Evaporative Cooling System * Ventilation System * Summary 47. Air Handling Systems * Brief Overview * Air Handling Units (AHUs) * Fan Coil Units (FCUs) 48. Air Distribution Systems* Benefits of Good Design * Classification of Ducts * Methods of Duct Design * Fundamentals of Duct Design * Appropriate Size Selection * Economics of Good Design * Insulation of Ducts * Acoustic Lining of Ducts * Grilles/Diffusers * Typical Details 49. Water Pumps * Importance of Pumps * Types of Pumps * Water Flow Rate (Condenser) * Water Flow Rate (Chiller) * Optimising Pump Head * Guide to Good Selection * Conclusion 50. Water Cooling Equipment * Basis of Selection * Cooling Towers (Sizing) * Other Cooling Devices (Sizing) * Water Consumption 51. Designing Condenser Water Piping * Purpose of Condenser Water Piping * Factors to be Considered in Design * Procedure to be Followed * Friction Table * Annexure I: Condenser Water Piping Design 52. Designing Chilled Water Piping* Purpose of Chilled Water Piping * Factors to be Considered in Design * Water Velocity * Procedure to be Followed * Pipe Sizing * Annexure I: Chilled Water Piping Design (Single Pumping) * Annexure II: Chilled Water Piping Design (Primary/Secondary Pumping) * Annexure III: Water Pipe Sizing Chart 53. Designing Hot Water Piping * Purpose of Hot Water Piping * Factors to be Considered in Design * Water Velocity * Procedure to be Followed * Pipe Sizing * Annexure I: Hot Water Piping Design (Single Pumping) * Annexure II: Hot Water Piping Design (Primary/Secondary Pumping) * Annexure III: Water Pipe Sizing Chart 54. Ventilation and Evaporative Cooling* Purpose of Ventilation * Ventilation Rates * Ventilation of Diesel Generator Set Rooms * Water Consumption in Evaporative Coolers * Usefulness of Evaporative Cooling * Summary * Annexure I: Staircase Pressurisation Method 55. Electrical System in HVAC * Details of Electrical Panel (Single Item) * Details of Electrical Panel (Multiple Items) * Importance of Capacitors and Control Circuits * Finer Points of Power Cabling * Importance of Earthing (Grounding) * Conclusion 56. Scope of Building Management Systems * Scope of Building Management System * Preparing Data Point Summary * Integrating Other Services * Usefulness of Logic * Summary * Annexure I: Data Point Input/Output (I/O) Summary 57. Insulation and Installation * Types of Insulation * Properties and Uses of Insulation * Installation of Equipment * Tips for Operation and Maintenance * Annexure I: Sample Plant Room Layout * Annexure II: Sample AHU Room, Cooling Tower and * Air Cooled Chiller Layout 58. General Information * Air Conditioning of Server Rooms * Water Quality and Treatment * Refrigerants: Their Environmental Effects * Temperature Conversion Table * Useful Tips * Conversions and Abbreviations * Liquid Tank Details * Weights and Volumes of Water Pipes * Selection of Valves and Accessories Details of Industry Partners Index

About the Author

N.C. Gupta is a renowned Consultant in the field of Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning and Refrigeration (HVAC&R) and is well-known both in India and abroad. He graduated in Mechanical Engineering from Oklahoma State University. Oklahoma, USA and then worked in Blue Star Ltd., a leading HVAC Company, for over a decade, before becoming an independent Consultant in 1972. He is widely acknowledged as a pioneer in this field who had the vision and conviction to step into a profession which was relatively unknown at that time. He has over 50 years of experience in designing HVAC systems of all possible types. He has more than 1,000 HVAC system designs to his credit, in fields as diverse as offices, hotels, hospitals, educational institutes, shopping malls, airports, etc. He was formerly President of ASHRAE's India Chapter and has been active with both ASHRAE and its Indian counterpart ISHRAE. He has to his credit the design of several innovative products for the HVAC industry which are now being widely manufactured and used in India. He has given talks at numerous forums in India on the subjects of HVAC design and energy conservation and has delivered guest lectures at various educational institutions. He has been felicitated with several awards and honours from diverse organisations in recognition of his immense contribution to the HVAC industry in India.

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