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Deco for Divers
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Table of Contents

Contents, Introduction...1 Chapter 1- Historical Perspective...7, Robert Boyle (1627 - 1691)...7, Rediscovery...8, Caissons Disease...9, Paul Bert (1833-1886)...11, John Scott Haldane (1860-1936)...12, US Navy...15, Robert Workman...16, Professor Albert Buhlmann (1923 - 1994)...17 Chapter 2- Decompression Principles...19, Overview...19, The Air we Breathe...20, The Effects of Pressure...21, Dalton's Law...22, The Lungs...23, Henry's Law...26, Diffusion...26, Gas Transport...28, Perfusion...28, Saturation...29, Tissue Compartments...30, Half Times...30, Supersaturation...32, Critical Supersaturation...34, Controlling Ratio M-Values...34, Ascent Rates...36, No-Stop Dives...39, Bubble Formation...40, Silent Bubbles...40, Safety Stops...41, Decompression Stops...43, Oxygen Window...48 Chapter 3- Decompression Illness...51, Burst Lung...51, Arterial Gas Embolism (AGE )...52, Interstitial Emphysema...52, Pneumothorax...52, Decompression Sickness...52, Decompression Classification...53, Type I...53, Type II...54, Type III...54, Type IV ...55, Reclassification of DCS and AGE ...57, Symptoms of the Bends by Frequency ...59, Time of Onset of Symptoms ...59, Predisposing Factors...60, Dehydration...60, Dive Profiles...61, Repetitive Diving...62, Temperature...62, Obesity...63, Exercise...63, Smoking...65, Age...66, Flying after Diving...66, Reverse Profile...67, Previous Injury...69, PFO...69, Lung Shunts...72, Doppler Bubble Detection...73, Medical implications of DCI...75, First Aid...76, Oxygen...77, 5 Minute Neurological Exam...79, Recompression...81, In-Water Recompression...85, Omitted Decompression...87 Chapter 4- Saturation Diving...89, Development Of Saturation Diving...90, Commercial Saturation Diving...93, Saturation Decompression...93 Chapter 5- Nitrox...95, Using Nitrox...97, Using Nitrox as a Decompression Gas...100, The Oxygen Window Revisited...104 Chapter 6- Deep Stops and Bubble Models...109, Deep Stops...111, Pyle Deep Stops - an Example...113, Gradient Factors...116, Dual Phase (Bubble) Models...118, Individual Bubble Behaviour...120, Multiple Bubble Behaviour...124, Gas Switches and Bubble Models...126, Specific Bubble Models: Thermodynamic Model...127, Varying Permeability Model...129, Critical Volume Algorithm...131, Development of VPM...132, Reduced Gradient Bubble Model...133 Chapter 7- Mixed Gas...135, Choice of Gas...136, Argon...136, Neon...136, Hydrogen...136, Helium...137, Trimix...140, Trimix Decompression...143, Helium in Decompression Gases...147, Isobaric Counter Diffusion...148 Chapter 8- Other Decompression Models...157, RNPL - Slab Diffusion...158, BSAC -'88...160, US Navy Exponential Linear Model...162, Probabilistic Models...163, DCIEM...165, Ratio Deco...168 Chapter 9- Decompression Calculations...171, Compartments, Half Times and Surfacing Ratios...171, Workman M-Values (1965)...172, Buhlmann ...173, ZH-L16A Set of M-Values for Nitrogen (1990)...174, ZH-L16A Half-times, "A" and "B" Values for Nitrogen and Helium...175, Conversion from Workman M-Values to Buhlmann Coefficients...175, The DCAP MM11F6 Model (1988) for Nitrogen...176, Variable Permeability Model (VPM)...177, Alveolar Partial Pressure...177, No Decompression Limits (NDL)...178, Saturation Level...178, Buhlmann...178, Schreiner...178, Ascent Ceiling...178, Decompression Stops...179, Calculating a Decompression Profile...179, Gradient Factors...180, Saturation Diving...180, DCIEM...180, Ratio Deco...181, GUE Ratio Deco Calculations...181, Ratio Set Points...181, First Deep Stop...181, Generic Ratio Deco Calculations...181, Ratio Set Points...181, First Deep Stop...181, Acknowledgements...182, References and Further Reading...183, Index...190

About the Author

Mark Powell has been diving since 1987 and instructing since 1994. He operates Dive-Tech a company teaching technical diving for several leading agencies at all levels up to and including Advanced Trimix. He is a contributor of Sport Diver Magazine and has a monthly Technical feature discussing different aspects of technical diving.

Reviews

This is a truly remarkable book which covers all the various theories of decompression and ascents for divers in a most readable and understanding manner. There is no other comprehensive book on decompression to my knowledge which is so easy to read and understand by the average recreational or technical diver. Peter B. Bennett, Ph.D., D.Sc. Executive Director, UHMS. Emeritus Professor of Anesthesiology, Duke University Medical Center. Founder & 1st President, DAN This is the most comprehensive and well-written text I've seen that attempts to explain decompression theory to divers. Dr Richard Vann Assistant Research Professor in Anesthesiology, Safety Officer and Director of Applied Research at the Duke Hyperbaric Center, and Vice President for Research at DAN. This book is a "must read" for those who have ever wondered about decompression tables and how they are created. It is a straight forward book and devoid of technical jargon. It starts with the scientific giants who developed the physics of the gas laws and the physiology of diving and ends with M-values and tissue bubbles. For the curious diver - and all divers should be - it will be money well spent! Michael R. Powell, MS, PhD. NASA (retired), Medical Sciences Division, Johnson Space Center, Texas

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