Design of Reinforced Concrete

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Preface xv 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Concrete and Reinforced Concrete 1 1.2 Advantages of Reinforced Concrete as a Structural Material 1 1.3 Disadvantages of Reinforced Concrete as a Structural Material 2 1.4 Historical Background 3 1.5 Comparison of Reinforced Concrete and Structural Steel for Buildings and Bridges 5 1.6 Compatibility of Concrete and Steel 6 1.7 Design Codes 6 1.8 SI Units and Shaded Areas 7 1.9 Types of Portland Cement 7 1.10 Admixtures 9 1.11 Properties of Concrete 10 1.12 Aggregate 18 1.13 High-Strength Concretes 19 1.14 Fiber-Reinforced Concretes 20 1.15 Concrete Durability 21 1.16 Reinforcing Steel 22 1.17 Grades of Reinforcing Steel 24 1.18 SI Bar Sizes and Material Strengths 25 1.19 Corrosive Environments 26 1.20 Identifying Marks on Reinforcing Bars 26 1.21 Introduction to Loads 28 1.22 Dead Loads 28 1.23 Live Loads 29 1.24 Environmental Loads 30 1.25 Selection of Design Loads 32 1.26 Calculation Accuracy33 1.27 Impact of Computers on Reinforced Concrete Design 34 Problems 34 2 Flexural Analysis of Beams 35 2.1 Introduction 35 2.2 Cracking Moment 38 2.3 Elastic Stresses Concrete Cracked 41 2.4 Ultimate or Nominal Flexural Moments 48 2.5 SI Example 51 2.6 Computer Examples 52 Problems 54 3 Strength Analysis of Beams According to ACI Code 65 3.1 Design Methods 65 3.2 Advantages of Strength Design 66 3.3 Structural Safety 66 3.4 Derivation of Beam Expressions 67 3.5 Strains in Flexural Members, 70 3.6 Balanced Sections, Tension-Controlled Sections, and Compression-Controlled or Brittle Sections 71 3.7 Strength Reduction or Factors 71 3.8 Minimum Percentage of Steel 74 3.9 Balanced Steel Percentage 75 3.10 Example Problems 76 3.11 Computer Examples 79 Problems 80 4 Design of Rectangular Beams and One-Way Slabs 82 4.1 Load Factors 82 4.2 Design of Rectangular Beams 85 4.3 Beam Design Examples 89 4.4 Miscellaneous Beam Considerations 95 4.5 Determining Steel Area When Beam Dimensions Are Predetermined 96 4.6 Bundled Bars 98 4.7 One-Way Slabs 99 4.8 Cantilever Beams and Continuous Beams 102 4.9 SI Example 103 4.10 Computer Example 105 Problems 106 5 Analysis and Design of T Beams and Doubly Reinforced Beams 112 5.1 T Beams 112 5.2 Analysis of T Beams 114 5.3 Another Method for Analyzing T Beams 118 5.4 Design of T Beams 120 5.5 Design of T Beams for Negative Moments 125 5.6 L-Shaped Beams 127 5.7 Compression Steel 127 5.8 Design of Doubly Reinforced Beams 132 5.9 SI Examples 136 5.10 Computer Examples, 138 Problems 143 6 Serviceability 154 6.1 Introduction 154 6.2 Importance of Deflections 154 6.3 Control of Deflections 155 6.4 Calculation of Deflections 157 6.5 Effective Moments of Inertia 158 6.6 Long-Term Deflections 160 6.7 Simple-Beam Deflections 162 6.8 Continuous-Beam Deflections 164 6.9 Types of Cracks 170 6.10 Control of Flexural Cracks 171 6.11 ACI Code Provisions Concerning Cracks 175 6.12 Miscellaneous Cracks 176 6.13 SI Example 176 6.14 Computer Example 177 Problems 179 7 Bond, Development Lengths, and Splices 184 7.1 Cutting Off or Bending Bars 184 7.2 Bond Stresses 187 7.3 Development Lengths for Tension Reinforcing 189 7.4 Development Lengths for Bundled Bars 197 7.5 Hooks 199 7.6 Development Lengths for Welded Wire Fabric in Tension 203 7.7 Development Lengths for Compression Bars 204 7.8 Critical Sections for Development Length 206 7.9 Effect of Combined Shear and Moment on Development Lengths 206 7.10 Effect of Shape of Moment Diagram on Development Lengths 207 7.11 Cutting Off or Bending Bars (Continued) 208 7.12 Bar Splices in Flexural Members 211 7.13 Tension Splices 213 7.14 Compression Splices 213 7.15 Headed and Mechanically Anchored Bars 214 7.16 SI Example 215 7.17 Computer Example 216 Problems 217 8 Shear and Diagonal Tension 223 8.1 Introduction 223 8.2 Shear Stresses in Concrete Beams 223 8.3 Lightweight Concrete 224 8.4 Shear Strength of Concrete 225 8.5 Shear Cracking of Reinforced Concrete Beams 226 8.6 Web Reinforcement 227 8.7 Behavior of Beams with Web Reinforcement 229 8.8 Design for Shear 231 8.9 ACI Code Requirements 232 8.10 Shear Design Example Problems 237 8.11 Economical Spacing of Stirrups 247 8.12 Shear Friction and Corbels 249 8.13 Shear Strength of Members Subjected to Axial Forces 251 8.14 Shear Design Provisions for Deep Beams 253 8.15 Introductory Comments on Torsion 254 8.16 SI Example 256 8.17 Computer Example 257 Problems 258 9 Introduction to Columns 263 9.1 General 263 9.2 Types of Columns 264 9.3 Axial Load Capacity of Columns 266 9.4 Failure of Tied and Spiral Columns 266 9.5 Code Requirements for Cast-in-Place Columns 269 9.6 Safety Provisions for Columns 271 9.7 Design Formulas 272 9.8 Comments on Economical Column Design 273 9.9 Design of Axially Loaded Columns 274 9.10 SI Example 277 9.11 Computer Example 278 Problems 279 10 Design of Short Columns Subject to Axial Load and Bending 281 10.1 Axial Load and Bending 281 10.2 The Plastic Centroid 282 10.3 Development of Interaction Diagrams 284 10.4 Use of Interaction Diagrams 290 10.5 Code Modifications of Column Interaction Diagrams 292 10.6 Design and Analysis of Eccentrically Loaded Columns Using Interaction Diagrams 294 10.7 Shear in Columns 301 10.8 Biaxial Bending 302 10.9 Design of Biaxially Loaded Columns 306 10.10 Continued Discussion of Capacity Reduction Factors, 309 10.11 Computer Example 311 Problems 312 11 Slender Columns 317 11.1 Introduction 317 11.2 Nonsway and Sway Frames 317 11.3 Slenderness Effects 318 11.4 Determining k Factors with Alignment Charts 321 11.5 Determining k Factors with Equations 322 11.6 First-Order Analyses Using Special Member Properties 323 11.7 Slender Columns in Nonsway and Sway Frames 324 11.8 ACI Code Treatments of Slenderness Effects 328 11.9 Magnification of Column Moments in Nonsway Frames 328 11.10 Magnification of Column Moments in Sway Frames 333 11.11 Analysis of Sway Frames 336 11.12 Computer Examples 342 Problems 344 12 Footings 347 12.1 Introduction 347 12.2 Types of Footings 347 12.3 Actual Soil Pressures 350 12.4 Allowable Soil Pressures 351 12.5 Design of Wall Footings 352 12.6 Design of Square Isolated Footings 357 12.7 Footings Supporting Round or Regular Polygon-Shaped Columns 364 12.8 Load Transfer from Columns to Footings 364 12.9 Rectangular Isolated Footings 369 12.10 Combined Footings 372 12.11 Footing Design for Equal Settlements 378 12.12 Footings Subjected to Axial Loads and Moments 380 12.13 Transfer of Horizontal Forces 382 12.14 Plain Concrete Footings 383 12.15 SI Example 386 12.16 Computer Examples 388 Problems 391 13 Retaining Walls 394 13.1 Introduction 394 13.2 Types of Retaining Walls 394 13.3 Drainage 397 13.4 Failures of Retaining Walls 398 13.5 Lateral Pressure on Retaining Walls 399 13.6 Footing Soil Pressures 404 13.7 Design of Semigravity Retaining Walls 405 13.8 Effect of Surcharge 408 13.9 Estimating the Sizes of Cantilever Retaining Walls 409 13.10 Design Procedure for Cantilever Retaining Walls 413 13.11 Cracks and Wall Joints 424 Problems 426 14 Continuous Reinforced Concrete Structures 431 14.1 Introduction 431 14.2 General Discussion of Analysis Methods 431 14.3 Qualitative Influence Lines 431 14.4 Limit Design 434 14.5 Limit Design under the ACI Code 442 14.6 Preliminary Design of Members 445 14.7 Approximate Analysis of Continuous Frames for Vertical Loads 445 14.8 Approximate Analysis of Continuous Frames for Lateral Loads 454 14.9 Computer Analysis of Building Frames 458 14.10 Lateral Bracing for Buildings 459 14.11 Development Length Requirements for Continuous Members 459 Problems 465 15 Torsion 470 15.1 Introduction 470 15.2 Torsional Reinforcing 471 15.3 Torsional Moments that Have to Be Considered in Design 474 15.4 Torsional Stresses 475 15.5 When Torsional Reinforcing Is Required by the ACI 476 15.6 Torsional Moment Strength 477 15.7 Design of Torsional Reinforcing 478 15.8 Additional ACI Requirements 479 15.9 Example Problems Using U.S. Customary Units 480 15.10 SI Equations and Example Problem 483 15.11 Computer Example 487 Problems 488 16 Two-Way Slabs, Direct Design Method 492 16.1 Introduction 492 16.2 Analysis of Two-Way Slabs 495 16.3 Design of Two-Way Slabs by the ACI Code 495 16.4 Column and Middle Strips 496 16.5 Shear Resistance of Slabs 497 16.6 Depth Limitations and Stiffness Requirements 500 16.7 Limitations of Direct Design Method 505 16.8 Distribution of Moments in Slabs 506 16.9 Design of an Interior Flat Plate 511 16.10 Placing of Live Loads 514 16.11 Analysis of Two-Way Slabs with Beams 517 16.12 Transfer of Moments and Shears between Slabs and Columns 522 16.13 Openings in Slab Systems 528 16.14 Computer Example 528 Problems 530 17 Two-Way Slabs, Equivalent Frame Method 532 17.1 Moment Distribution for Nonprismatic Members 532 17.2 Introduction to the Equivalent Frame Method 533 17.3 Properties of Slab Beams 535 17.4 Properties of Columns 538 17.5 Example Problem 540 17.6 Computer Analysis 544 17.7 Computer Example 545 Problems 546 18 Walls 547 18.1 Introduction 547 18.2 Non-Load-Bearing Walls 547 18.3 Load-Bearing Concrete Walls Empirical Design Method 549 18.4 Load-Bearing Concrete Walls Rational Design 552 18.5 Shear Walls 554 18.6 ACI Provisions for Shear Walls 558 18.7 Economy in Wall Construction 563 18.8 Computer Example 564 Problems 565 19 Prestressed Concrete 567 19.1 Introduction 567 19.2 Advantages and Disadvantages of Prestressed Concrete 569 19.3 Pretensioning and Posttensioning 569 19.4 Materials Used for Prestressed Concrete 570 19.5 Stress Calculations 572 19.6 Shapes of Prestressed Sections 576 19.7 Prestress Losses 579 19.8 Ultimate Strength of Prestressed Sections 582 19.9 Deflections 586 19.10 Shear in Prestressed Sections 590 19.11 Design of Shear Reinforcement 591 19.12 Additional Topics 595 19.13 Computer Example 597 Problems 598 20 Reinforced Concrete Masonry 602 20.1 Introduction 602 20.2 Masonry Materials 602 20.3 Specified Compressive Strength of Masonry 606 20.4 Maximum Flexural Tensile Reinforcement 607 20.5 Walls with Out-of-Plane Loads Non-Load-Bearing Walls 607 20.6 Masonry Lintels 611 20.7 Walls with Out-of-Plane Loads Load-Bearing 616 20.8 Walls with In-Plane Loading Shear Walls 623 20.9 Computer Example 628 Problems 630 A Tables and Graphs: U.S. Customary Units 631 B Tables in SI Units 669 C The Strut-and-Tie Method of Design 675 C.1 Introduction 675 C.2 Deep Beams 675 C.3 Shear Span and Behavior Regions 675 C.4 Truss Analogy 677 C.5 Definitions 678 C.6 ACI Code Requirements for Strut-and-Tie Design 678 C.7 Selecting a Truss Model 679 C.8 Angles of Struts in Truss Models 681 C.9 Design Procedure 682 D Seismic Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 683 D.1 Introduction 683 D.2 Maximum Considered Earthquake 684 D.3 Soil Site Class 684 D.4 Risk and Importance Factors 686 D.5 Seismic Design Categories 687 D.6 Seismic Design Loads 687 D.7 Detailing Requirements for Different Classes of Reinforced Concrete Moment Frames 691 Problems 698 Glossary 699 Index 703

**Jack C. McCormac** is Alumni Distinguished
Professor o Civil Engineering, Emeritus at Clemson University. He
holds a BS in civil engineering from the Citadel, an MS in civil
engineering from Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and a
Doctor of Letters from Clemson University. His contributions to
engineering education and the engineering profession have been
recognized by many, including the American Society for Engineering
Education, the American Institute of Steel Construction, and the
American Concrete Institute. Professor McCormac was included in the
International Who's Who in Engineering, and was named by the
Engineering News-Record as one of the top 125 engineers or
architects in the world in the last 125 years for his contributions
to the construction industry. He was one of only two educators
living in the world today to receive this honor. Professor McCormac
belongs to the American Society of Civil Engineers and served as
the principal civil engineering grader for the National Council of
Examiners for Engineering and Surveying for many years.

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