Dr. Michael E. Mann is a member of the Pennsylvania State University faculty, holding joint positions in the Departments of Meteorology and Geosciences, and the Earth and Environmental Systems Institute (EESI). He is also director of the Penn State Earth System Science Center (ESSC). Dr. Mann received his undergraduate degree in physics and applied math from the University of California at Berkeley, an MS degree in physics from Yale University, and a PhD in geology & geophysics from Yale University. He is author of more than 100 peer-reviewed and edited publications, and is a cofounder of RealClimate.org. Lee R. Kump is a professor in the department of geosciences at Pennsylvania State University and an associate of the Penn State Earth System Science Center and the Penn State Astrobiology Research Center. He is the coauthor of Dire Predictions: Understanding Climate Change, Earth System and Scientific American: The Last Great Global Warming.