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Today nearly half of the Earth's peoples live in cities, and projected trends indicate a rise to five billion city dwellers by the year 2025. All cities become increasingly coupled with and vulnerable to their environment as they grow. For cities to be safe and sustainable we must be ever aware of the inter-relationships between natural processes and the urban environment, effects on the population, and--in turn--the effects of population on the environment. Many of these relationships, which become issues or problems of public note usually when we are faced with immediate conditions of risk--including water use sustainability or hazard mitigation from natural disasters--must be addressed via the geosciences. And geoscience researchers should be aware that the results of their work are vital to solving urban problems both in the practical and theoretical domains, and for immediate and future needs. The present book speaks to such concerns. We hope it also serves to stimulate discussion of, and research on, urban geoscience for professionals in the field or associated with it, and for students entering the field.
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Table of Contents

Preface Grant Heiken, Robert Fakundiny, and John Sutter v Introduction Grant Heiken 1 Section I. Background--Earth Science in the Cities Chapter 1. Large Urban ConcentrationsA: New Phenomenon George Bugliarello 7 Chapter 2. Geoantiquitiesin the Urban Landscape; Earth History Records in the Cities Marjorie A. Chan, Donald R. Currey, Andrea N. Dion, and Holly S. Godsey 21 Chapter 3. Engineering Geology of New York City: Continuing Value of Geologic Data Charles A. Baskerville and Robert H. Fakundiny 43 Section II. Natural Hazards and the City Chapter 4. Towards Integrated Natural Hazard Reduction in Urban Areas Greg A. Valentine 63 Chapter 5. Seismic-Risk Evaluation in Cities of New York and Surrounding Regions: Issues Related to all Intraplate Cities Robert H. Fakundiny 75 Chapter 6. Facing Volcanic and Related Hazards in the Neapolitan Area Giovanni Orsi, Sandro de Vita, Mauro A. Di Vito, Roberto Isaia, Rosella Nave, and Grant Heiken 121 Chapter 7. Tsunami Impact and Mitigation in Inhabited Areas G. T. Hebenstreit, E I. Gonzdlez, and J. Preuss 171 Chapter 8. Landslides and Cities: An Unwanted Partnership Richard J. Pike, David G. Howell 187 Section III. Urban Hydrology Chapter 9. Effects of Urbanization on Groundwater Systems J. M. Sharp, Jr., J. N. Krothe, J. D. Mather, B. Garcia-Fresca, and C. A. Stewart 257 Chapter 10. Integrated Environmental Modeling of the Urban Ecosystem Timothy N. McPherson, Steven J. Burian, Michael J. Brown, Gerald E. Streit, and H. J. Turin 279 Chapter 11. Urban Environmental Modeling and Assessment Using Detailed Urban Databases Steven J. Burian, Timothy N. McPherson, Michael J. Brown, Gerald E. Streit, and H. J. Turin 303 Section IV. The Remotely Sensed City Chapter 12. Mapping the City Landscape From Space: The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflectance Radiometer (ASTER) Urban Environmental Monitoring Program Michael S. Ramsey 337 Chapter 13. Airborne Laser Topographic Mapping: Applications to Hurricane Storm Surge Hazards Dean Whitman, Keqi Zhang, Stephen P Leatherman, and William Robertson 363 Section V. Integrated Earth Sciences and Urban Development and Sustainability Chapter 14. Integrating Geological Informationin to Urban Planning and Management: Approaches for the 21 st Century B. R. Marker, J. J. Pereira, and E. E J. de Mulder 379 Chapter 15. Greater Phoenix 2100: Building a National Urban Environmental Research Agenda Jonathan Fink, Frederick Steiner, Nancy B. Grimm, and Charles L. Redman 413 Chapter 16. Modeling Cities--The Los Alamos Urban Security Initiative Grant Heiken, Greg A . Valentine, Michael Brown, Steen Rasmussen, Jonathan Dowell, Sudha Maheshwari, and Denise C. George 427

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