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Electromagnetic Analysis and Condition Monitoring of Synchronous Generators
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Table of Contents

Author Biographies

Preface

Chapter 1 Introduction

1.1. Introduction to Condition Monitoring of Electric Machines

1.2. Importance of Synchronous Generators

1.3. Economic Aspects and Advantages

1.4. Intention of the Book

Chapter 2 Operation Principles, Structure, and Design of Synchronous Generators

2.1. Introduction

2.3. Types and Constructions of Synchronous Machines

2.4. Voltage Equation and Rated Power of the Synchronous Generator

2.5. Synchronous Generator Model Parameters

2.6. Different Operating Modes of Synchronous Machines

2.7. Damper Bars in Synchronous Generators

2.8. Losses and Efficiency in Synchronous Generators

2.9. High-Voltage Synchronous Generators

2.10. Preliminary Design Considerations

2.11. Stator Design Considerations

2.12. Summary

Chapter 3 Transformed Models and Parameter Identification of Synchronous Generators

3.1. Introduction

3.2. Multi-Phase Synchronous Generator Modeling Based on Park Equations

3.4. Parameter Estimation Algorithms

3.5. Parameter Accuracy Increments by Considering Saturation

3.6. Fault Detection Based on Parameter Deviation

3.7. Summary

Chapter 4 Introduction to Different Types of Faults in Synchronous Generators

4.1. Reasons for Condition Monitoring of Synchronous Generators

4.2. Different Faults in Synchronous Generators

4.3. Main Factors Leading to Electrical Machine Damage

4.4. Major Destruction Factors of Stator Winding

4.5. Common Faults in Stator Winding

4.6. Rotor Field Winding Fault

4.7. Eccentricity Faults

4.8. Misalignment Faults

4.9. Damper Winding Fault

4.10. Summary

Chapter 5 Laboratory Scale Implementation

5.1. Introduction

5.2. Salient Pole Synchronous Generator

5.3. Induction Motor

5.4. Gearbox

5.5. Converter

5.6. Rotor Magnetization Unit

5.7. DC Power Supply

5.8. Local Passive Load

5.9. Sensors

5.10. Data Acquisition

5.11. Fault Implementation

5.12. Noise Considerations

5.13. Summary

Chapter 6. Analytical Modeling Based on Wave and Permeance Method

6.1. Introduction

6.2. Eccentricity Fault Definition

6.3. The Air Gap Magnetic Field

6.4. The Electromotive Force in Stator Terminals

6.5. The Stator Current

6.6. Force Density and Unbalanced Magnetic Pull

6.7. Stator Slotting Effects

6.8. Magnetic Saturation Effects

6.9. The Mixed Eccentricity Fault

6.10. The Air Gap Magnetic Field

6.11. Induced Electromotive Force in Stator Terminals

6.12. Force Density and Unbalanced Magnetic Pull

6.13. Short Circuit Modeling

6.14. Air Gap Permeance Under a Short Circuit Fault

6.15. Force Density and Unbalanced Magnetic Pull under a Rotor Inter-turn Short Circuit Fault

6.16.Summary

Chapter 7 Analytical Modeling Based on Winding Function Methods

7.1. Introduction

7.2. History and Usage of the WFM

7.3. Winding Function Modeling of a Synchronous Generator

7.4. Mutual Inductance Calculation Between the Stator Phases

7.5. The Mutual Inductance Between the Stator and Rotor

7.6. The Self Inductance of the Rotor

7.7. Derivative Forms of Synchronous Generator Inductances

7.8. A Practical Case study

7.9. Healthy Case Simulation

7.10. Faulty Case Simulation

7.11. Algorithm for Determination of the Magnetic Saturation Factor

7.12. Eccentricity Fault Modeling Considering Magnetic Saturation Under Load Variations

7.13. Dynamic Modeling under an Eccentricity Fault

7.14. Summary

Chapter 8. Finite Element Modeling of a Synchronous Generator

8.1. Introduction

8.2. Electromagnetic Field Computation

8.3. Eddy Current and Core Loss Considerations

8.4. Material Modeling

8.5. Band Object, Motion Setup, and Boundary Conditions

8.6. Mesh Consideration

8.7. Time Steps and Simulation Run Time

8.8. Transient and Steady-State Modeling

8.9. No-Load and On-Load Modeling

8.10. 2D and 3D FEM

8.11. 3D-FE Equations of the Synchronous Generator

8.12. Modeling of the Stator and Rotor Windings of the Generator and Its Load

8.13. Air Gap Magnetic Field Measurements

8.14. Stray Flux Measurements

8.15. Eccentricity Fault Modeling

8.16. Stator and Rotor Short Circuit Fault

8.17. Broken Damper Bar Modeling

8.18. Summary

Chapter 9 Thermal Analysis of Synchronous Generators

9.1. Introduction

9.2. Overview of Thermal Modeling and Analysis

9.3. Thermal Modeling and Analyzing Synchronous Generators

9.4. Modeling and Analysis of Faulty Synchronous Generators

9.5. Summary

Chapter 10 Signal Processing

10.1. Introduction 2

10.2. Signals

10.3. Fast Fourier Transform

10.4. Fast Fourier Transform with an Adjusted Sampling Frequency

10.5. Short-Time Fourier Transform

10.6. Continuous Wavelet Transform

10.7. Discrete Wavelet Transform

10.7.1. Wavelet Energies

10.7.2. Wavelet Entropy

10.8. Hilbert-Huang Transform

10.9. Time Series Data Mining

10.10. Spectral Kurtosis and Kurtogram

10.11. Noise

10.12. Summary

Chapter 11 Electromagnetic Signature Analysis of Electrical Faults

11.1. Introduction

11.2. General Introduction to Short Circuit Fault Detection Methods in Synchronous Machines

11.3. Stator Short Circuit Fault Types

11.4. Synchronous Generator Stator Fault Effects

11.5. Fault Diagnosis Methods in the Stator Winding

11.6. Stator Short Circuit Fault Detection of Brushless Synchronous Machines

11.7. Stator Short Circuit Fault Detection of Powerformers

11.8. Stator Short Circuit Fault Detection of Turbo-generators

11.9. Inter-turn Short Circuit Fault in Rotor Field Winding

11.10 Summary

Chapter 12 Electromagnetic Signature Analysis of Mechanical Faults

12.1. Introduction

12.2. Eccentricity Faults

12.3. Stator Core Fault

12.4. Broken Damper Bar Fault

12.5. Summary

Chapter 13 Vibration Monitoring

13.1. Introduction

13.2. Condition Monitoring Using Vibration

13.3. Vibration in Salient-Pole Synchronous Generators

13.4. Introduction to Utilized Terms in Vibration Analysis

13.5. Force and Vibration Analysis

13.6. Summary

Chapter 14 Application of Machine Learning in Fault Detection

14.1. Introduction

14.2. Supervised Learning

14.3. Ensemble Learners

14.4. Logistic Regression

14.5. K-Nearest Neighbors

14.6. Support Vector Machine

14.7. Decision Tree Learning

14.8. Random Forest 12

14.9. Boosted Trees

14.10. Gradient Boost Decision Trees

14.11. Artificial Neural Network

14.12. Other Artificial Neural Networks

14.13. Real Case Application

14.14. Summary

Chapter 15 Insulation Defect Monitoring

15.1. Introduction

15.2. History and Advantages of Using Partial Discharge Techniques

15.3. Electrical Machine Fault Generation Factors

15.4. Rotating Machine Insulation System

15.5 PD Types in Rotating Machines

15.6. Risk Assessment of Different Partial Discharge Faults

15.7. Frequency Characteristics of Current Pulses

15.8. Measurement of PD Signals

15.9. Online Measurements of PD in Rotating Electrical Machines

15.10. Summary

Chapter 16 Noise Rejection Methods and Data Interpretation

16.1. Introduction

16.2. Noise Rejection in Online Measurement

16.3. Noise Sources in Generators

16.4. Different Methods for Denoising

16.5. Data Interpretation

16.6. Separating PD sources

16.7. Summary

References

About the Author

Hossein Ehya, PhD, is a Research Fellow in the Department of Electrical Power Engineering at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU). He has been working on the health monitoring of electric machines since 2010. From 2013 to 2018, he also worked as an electrical machine design engineer who designed over 30 industrial electric machines. Dr. Ehya was the recipient of several innovation awards from NTNU and the Research Council of Norway. His current research activities include the development of an automated health monitoring system for electric aviation and renewable energies. Jawad Faiz, PhD, is Professor at the School of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Tehran, Iran, where his research interests are the design, modeling and fault diagnosis of electrical machines and transformers. He is a senior member of the IEEE, a Fellow of the Iran Academy of Sciences, and the member of Euro-Med Academy of Sciences and Arts. He has published more than 300 journal papers and presented about the same number of conference papers. He published two books by Springer and IET in the above-mentioned fields. Prof. Faiz was the recipient of several international and national awards for his research activities.

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