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Embedded Systems
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Table of Contents

Preface xv

Contributors xvii

1 Low Power Multicore Processors for Embedded Systems 1
Fumio Arakawa

1.1 Multicore Chip with Highly Efficient Cores 1

1.2 SuperH RISC Engine Family (SH) Processor Cores 5

1.3 SH-X: A Highly Efficient CPU Core 9

1.4 SH-X FPU: A Highly Efficient FPU 20

1.5 SH-X2: Frequency and Efficiency Enhanced Core 33

1.6 SH-X3: Multicore Architecture Extension 34

1.7 SH-X4: ISA and Address Space Extension 47

2 Special-Purpose Hardware for Computational Biology 61
Siddharth Srinivasan

2.1 Molecular Dynamics Simulations on Graphics Processing Units 62

2.2 Special-Purpose Hardware and Network Topologies for MD Simulations 72

2.3 Quantum MC Applications on Field-Programmable Gate Arrays 77

2.4 Conclusions and Future Directions 82

3 Embedded GPU Design 85
Byeong-Gyu Nam and Hoi-Jun Yoo

3.1 Introduction 85

3.2 System Architecture 86

3.3 Graphics Modules Design 88

3.4 System Power Management 95

3.5 Implementation Results 99

3.6 Conclusion 102

4 Low-Cost VLSI Architecture for Random Block-Based Access of Pixels in Modern Image Sensors 107
Tareq Hasan Khan and Khan Wahid

4.1 Introduction 107

4.2 The DVP Interface 108

4.3 The iBRIDGE-BB Architecture 109

4.4 Hardware Implementation 116

4.5 Conclusion 123

5 Embedded Computing Systems on FPGAs 127
Lesley Shannon

5.1 FPGA Architecture 128

5.2 FPGA Confi guration Technology 129

5.3 Software Support 133

5.4 Final Summary of Challenges and Opportunities for Embedded Computing Design on FPGAs 135

6 FPGA-Based Emulation Support for Design Space Exploration 139
Paolo Meloni, Simone Secchi, and Luigi Raffo

6.1 Introduction 139

6.2 State of the Art 140

6.3 A Tool for Energy-Aware FPGA-Based Emulation: The MADNESS Project Experience 144

6.4 Enabling FPGA-Based DSE: Runtime-Reconfi gurable Emulators 147

6.5 Use Cases 161

7 FPGA Coprocessing Solution for Real-Time Protein Identifi cation Using Tandem Mass Spectrometry 169
Daniel Coca, Istvan Bogdan, and Robert J. Beynon

7.1 Introduction 169

7.2 Protein Identifi cation by Sequence Database Searching Using MS/MS Data 171

7.3 Reconfi gurable Computing Platform 174

7.4 FPGA Implementation of the MS/MS Search Engine 176

7.5 Summary 180

8 Real-Time Confi gurable Phase-Coherent Pipelines 185
Robert L. Shuler, Jr., and David K. Rutishauser

8.1 Introduction and Purpose 185

8.2 History and Related Methods 188

8.3 Implementation Framework 191

8.4 Prototype Implementation 204

8.5 Assessment Compared with Related Methods 207

9 Low Overhead Radiation Hardening Techniques for Embedded Architectures 211
Sohan Purohit, Sai Rahul Chalamalasetti, and Martin Margala

9.1 Introduction 211

9.2 Recently Proposed SEU Tolerance Techniques 213

9.3 Radiation-Hardened Reconfi gurable Array with Instruction Rollback 223

9.4 Conclusion 234

10 Hybrid Partially Adaptive Fault-Tolerant Routing for 3D Networks-on-Chip 239
Sudeep Pasricha and Yong Zou

10.1 Introduction 239

10.2 Related Work 240

10.3 Proposed 4NP-First Routing Scheme 242

10.4 Experiments 250

10.5 Conclusion 255

11 Interoperability in Electronic Systems 259
Andrew Leone

11.1 Interoperability 259

11.2 The Basis for Interoperability: The OSI Model 261

11.3 Hardware 263

11.4 Firmware 266

11.5 Partitioning the System 268

11.6 Examples of Interoperable Systems 270

12 Software Modeling Approaches for Presilicon System Performance Analysis 273
Kenneth J. Schultz and Frederic Risacher

12.1 Introduction 273

12.2 Methodologies 275

12.3 Results 283

12.4 Conclusion 288

13 Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Implementation in Embedded Systems 291
Issam Hammad, Kamal El-Sankary, and Ezz El-Masry

13.1 Introduction 291

13.2 Finite Field 292

13.3 The AES 293

13.4 Hardware Implementations for AES 300

13.5 High-Speed AES Encryptor with Efficient Merging Techniques 306

13.6 Conclusion 315

14 Reconfi gurable Architecture for Cryptography over Binary Finite Fields 319
Samuel Antao, Ricardo Chaves, and Leonel Sousa

14.1 Introduction 319

14.2 Background 320

14.3 Reconfigurable Processor 333

14.4 Results 350

14.5 Conclusions 358

References 359

Index 363

About the Author

KRZYSZTOF (KRIS) INIEWSKI, PhD, is managing R&D atRedlen Technologies in Vancouver, Canada. He is also President ofCMOS Emerging Technologies, an organization of high-tech eventscovering communications, microsystems, optoelectronics, andsensors. Dr. Iniewski has also held numerous faculty and managementpositions at University of Toronto, University of Alberta, SimonFraser University, and PMC-Sierra, Inc. He has published over 100research papers in international journals and has written andedited several books.

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