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Energy Efficient Manufacturing
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Table of Contents

1 Introduction to Energy Efficient Manufacturing 1
Barbara S. Linke and John W. Sutherland

1.1 Energy Use Implications 2

1.2 Drivers and Solutions for Energy Efficiency 3

References 9

2 Operation Planning & Monitoring 11
Y.B. Guo

2.1 Unit Manufacturing Processes 11

2.2 Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) of Unit Manufacturing Process 13

2.3 Energy Consumption in Unit Manufacturing Process 16

2.3.1 Basic Concepts of Energy, Power, and Work 16

2.3.2 Framework of Energy Consumption 17

2.4 Operation Plan Relevance to Energy Consumption 19

2.5 Energy Accounting in Unit Manufacturing Processes 20

2.6 Processing Energy in Unit Manufacturing Process 21

2.6.1 Cases of Processing Energy Modeling 21

2.6.1.1 Forging 21

2.6.1.2 Orthogonal Cutting 22

2.6.1.3 Grinding 24

2.6.1.4 Specific Energy vs. MRR 25

2.6.2 Energy Measurement 26

2.7 Energy Reduction Opportunities 26

2.7.1 Shortening Process Chain by Hard Machining 28

2.7.2 Substitution of Process Steps 28

2.7.3 Hybrid processes 29

2.7.4 Adaptation of Cooling and Flushing Strategies 29

2.7.5 Remanufacturing 30

References 30

3 Materials Processing 33
Karl R. Haapala, Sundar V. Atre, Ravi Enneti, Ian C. Garretson and Hao Zhang

3.1 Steel 34

3.1.1 Steelmaking Technology 35

3.2 Aluminum 36

3.2.1 Aluminum Alloying 37

3.2.2 History of Aluminum Processing 37

3.2.3 Aluminum in Commerce 38

3.2.4 Aluminum Processing 41

3.2.5 Bayer Process 42

3.2.6 Preparation of Carbon 44

3.2.7 Hall-Heroult Electrolytic Process 44

3.3 Titanium 45

3.3.1 Titanium Alloying 46

3.3.2 History of Titanium Processing 47

3.3.3 Titanium in Commerce 48

3.3.4 Titanium Processing Methods 49

3.3.5 Sulfate Process 50

3.3.6 Chloride Process 51

3.3.7 Hunter Process and Kroll Process 51

3.3.8 Remelting Processes 52

3.3.9 Emerging Titanium Processing Technologies 52

3.4 Polymers 54

3.4.1 Life Cycle Environmental and Cost Assessment 59

3.4.2 An Application of Polymer-Powder Processes 59

References 61

4 Energy Reduction in Manufacturing via Incremental Forming and Surface Microtexturing 65
Jian Cao and Rajiv Malhotra

4.1 Incremental Forming 66

4.1.1 Conventional Forming Processes 66

4.1.2 Energy Reduction via Incremental Forming 72

4.1.3 Challenges in Incremental Forming 75

4.1.3.1 Toolpath Planning for Enhanced Geometric Accuracy and Process Flexibility 76

4.1.3.2 Formability Prediction and Deformation Mechanics 85

4.1.3.3 Process Innovation and Materials Capability in DSIF 92

4.1.3.4 Future Challenges in Incremental Forming 95

4.2 Surface Microtexturing 97

4.2.1 Energy Based Applications of Surface Microtexturing 97

4.2.1.1 Microtexturing for Friction Reduction 97

4.2.1.2 Microtexturing Methods 101

4.2.1.3 Future Work in Microtexturing 114

4.3 Summary 115

4.4 Acknowledgement 116

References 116

5 An Analysis of Energy Consumption and Energy Efficiency in Material Removal Processes 123
Tao Lu and I.S. Jawahir

5.1 Overview 123

5.2 Plant and Workstation Levels 126

5.3 Operation Level 129

5.4 Process Optimization for Energy Consumption 134

5.4.1 Plant Level and Workstation Level 134

5.4.2 Operation Level 137

5.4.2.1 Turning Operation 137

5.4.2.2 Milling Operation 145

5.4.2.3 Drilling Operation 148

5.4.2.4 Grinding Operation 150

5.5 Conclusions 152

Reference 154

6 Nontraditional Removal Processes 159
Murali Sundaram and K.P. Rajurkar

6.1 Introduction 159

6.1.2 Working Principle 160

6.1.2.1 Electrical Discharge Machining 160

6.1.2.2 Electrochemical Machining 161

6.1.2.3 Electrochemical Discharge Machining 163

6.1.2.4 Electrochemical Grinding 164

6.2 Energy Efficiency 165

Acknowledgments 167

References 167

7 Surface Treatment and Tribological Considerations 169
S.R. Schmid and J. Jeswiet

7.1 Introduction 170

7.2 Surface Treatment Techniques 173

7.2.1 Surface Geometry Modification 174

7.2.2 Microstructural Modification 175

7.2.3 Chemical Approaches 179

7.3 Coating Operations 179

7.3.1 Hard Facing 179

7.3.2 Vapor Deposition 183

7.3.3 Miscellaneous Coating Operations 185

7.4 Tribology 189

7.5 Evolving Technologies 191

7.5.1 Biomimetics - Biologically Inspired Design 191

7.6 Micro Manufacturing 192

7.7 Conclusions 194

References 194

8 Joining Processes 197
Amber Shrivastava, Manuela Krones and Frank E. Pfefferkorn

8.1 Introduction 198

8.2 Sustainability in Joining 200

8.3 Taxonomy 203

8.4 Data Sources 205

8.5 Efficiency of Joining Equipment 208

8.6 Efficiency of Joining Processes 210

8.6.1 Fusion Welding 211

8.6.2 Chemical Joining Methods 214

8.6.3 Solid-State Welding 216

8.6.4 Mechanical Joining Methods 218

8.6.4.1 Mechanical Fastening 218

8.6.4.2 Adhesive Bonding 219

8.7 Process Selection 220

8.8 Efficiency of Joining Facilities 221

8.9 Case Studies 224

8.9.1 Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) 224

8.9.2 Friction Stir Welding (FSW) 228

Reference 235

9 Manufacturing Equipment 239
M. Helu, N. Diaz-Elsayed and D. Dornfeld

9.1 Introduction 239

9.2 Power Measurement 240

9.3 Characterizing the Power Demand 242

9.3.1 Constant Power 242

9.3.2 Variable Power 244

9.3.3 Processing Power 244

9.4 Energy Model 244

9.5 Life Cycle Energy Analysis of Production Equipment 246

9.6 Energy Reduction Strategies 247

9.6.1 Strategies for Equipment with High Processing Power 248

9.6.2 Strategies for Equipment with High Tare Power 249

9.6.2.1 Process Time 249

9.6.2.2 Machine Design 251

9.7 Additional Life Cycle Impacts of Energy Reduction Strategies 252

9.8 Summary 254

References 256

10 Energy Considerations in Assembly Operations 261
Camelio, J.A., McCullough, D., Prosch, S. and Rickli, J.L.

10.1 Introduction to Assembly Systems & Operations 262

10.2 Fundamentals of Assembly Operations 263

10.3 Characterizing Assembly System Energy Consumption 264

10.3.1 Indirect Energy 265

10.3.2 Direct Energy 266

10.4 Direct Energy Considerations of Assembly Joining Processes 268

10.4.1 Mechanical Assembly 268

10.4.2 Adhesive Bonding 269

10.4.3 Welding, Brazing, and Soldering 272

10.5 Assembly System Energy Metrics 275

10.6 Case Study: Heavy Duty Truck Assembly 280

10.6.1 Case Study Energy Consumption Analysis Approach 280

10.6.2 Assembly Process Categorization 281

10.6.3 Case Study Energy Analysis Results 285

10.6.4 Discussion and Recommendations 292

10.7 Future of Energy Efficient Assembly Operations 293

References 294

Appendix 10.A 296

11 Manufacturing Facility Energy Improvement 299
Chris Yuan, Junling Xie and John Nicol

11.1 Introduction 300

11.2 Auxiliary Industrial Energy Consumptions 303

11.2.1 Lighting 303

11.2.1.1 Lighting Technologies 304

11.2.1.2 Opportunities for Improving Energy Efficiency of Industrial Lighting 305

11.2.2 HVAC 307

11.2.2.1 HVAC Systems 308

11.2.2.2 HVAC Energy Efficiency Opportunities 310

11.2.3 Compressed Air 315

11.2.3.1 Compressed Air Technologies 316

11.2.3.2 Improving Energy Efficiency of Air Compressors 317

11.3 Industrial Practices on Energy Assessment and Energy Efficiency Improvement 321

11.3.1 Types of Energy Assessments 321

11.3.2 Energy Assessment Procedures 322

11.4 Energy Management and its Enhancement Approaches 323

11.4.1 Energy Management Description and Benefits 324

11.4.2 Establishing an Energy Management Approach 326

11.4.2.1 ISO 50001 336

11.5 Conclusions 337

References 338

12 Energy Efficient Manufacturing Process Planning 339
RuixueYin, Fu Zhao and John W. Sutherland

12.1 Introduction 339

12.2 The Basics of Process Planning 341

12.2.1 Types of Production 342

12.2.2 Process Planning Procedure 344

12.2.3 Process Planning Methods 346

12.3 Energy Efficient Process Planning 350

12.3.1 Energy Consumption and Carbon Footprint Models of Manufacturing Processes 350

12.3.2 A Semi-Generative Process Planning Approach for Energy Efficiency 351

12.4 Case Study 353

12.5 Conclusions 357

Reference 358

13 Scheduling for Energy Efficient Manufacturing 359
Nelson A. Uhan, Andrew Liu and Fu Zhao

13.1 Introduction 359

13.2 A Brief Introduction to Scheduling 360

13.2.1 Machine Environments 360

13.2.2 Job Characteristics 362

13.3.3 Feasible Schedules and Gantt Charts 362

13.2.4 Objective Functions: Classic Time-Based Objectives 364

13.3 Machine Environments 365

13.4 Job Characteristics 367

13.4.1 A Very Brief Introduction to Mathematical Optimization 368

13.4.2 A Time-Indexed Integer Linear Program for the Energy-Efficient Flow Shop Problem 370

13.4.3 Algorithms for Solving Integer Linear Programs 376

13.5 Conclusion and Additional Reading 377

References 379

14 Energy Efficiency in the Supply Chain 381
Thomas J. Goldsby and Fazleena Badurdeen

14.1 Supply Chain Management 381

14.2 Supply Chain Structure 382

14.3 Supply Chain Processes 385

14.3.1 Customer Relationship Management 387

14.3.2 Supplier Relationship Management 388

14.3.3 Customer Service Management 389

14.3.4 Demand Management 390

14.3.5 Manufacturing Flow Management 391

14.3.6 Order Fulfillment 392

14.3.7 Product Development and Commercialization 393

14.3.8 Returns Management 394

14.4 Supply Chain Management Components 395

14.5 Conclusion 396

References 396

Endnotes 400

15 Business Models and Organizational Strategies 401
Omar Romero-Hernandez, David Hirsch, Sergio Romero and Sara Beckman

15.1 Introduction 402

15.2 Reference Framework for Selection of Energy Efficiency Projects 404

15.2.1 Mission and Drivers 405

15.2.2 Set Level of Assessment 405

15.2.3 Recognize Opportunities and Risk 406

15.2.4 Select Projects 406

15.2.5 Implementation and Communication 407

15.3 Common Energy Efficiency Opportunities 408

15.3.1 Building Envelope 408

15.3.2 Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) 409

15.3.3 Efficient Lighting 410

15.3.4 Efficient Motors and Systems 411

15.3.5 Building Management Systems 412

15.4 Stakeholders 413

15.4.1 Tenants and Owners 413

15.4.2 Regulators 414

15.4.3 Banks/Lenders 414

15.4.4 Energy Service Companies (ESCOs) 415

15.4.5 Business Models 415

15.5 Conclusions 417

References 417

16 Energy Efficient or Energy Effective Manufacturing? 421
S. A. Shade and J. W. Sutherland

16.1 Energy Efficiency: A Macro Perspective 422

16.1.1 Government Perspective 422

16.1.2 Company Perspective 423

16.2 The Basics of Energy Efficiency 425

16.3 Limitations of Energy Efficiency 433

16.4 Energy Effectiveness 436

16.4.1 Effectiveness - It's Up to the Decision Maker 438

16.4.2 Effectiveness - A Choice on Where to Invest 439

16.4.3 Effectiveness - Is An Action Really Worthwhile? 439

16.5 Summary 442

16.6 Acknowledgments 443

References 443

Index 445

About the Author

John W. Sutherland received his PhD from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and is a Professor and holds the Fehsenfeld Family Headship of Environmental and Ecological Engineering (EEE) at Purdue University. He is one of the world's leading authorities on the application of sustainability principles to design, manufacturing, and other industrial issues. He has published more than 300 papers in various journals and conference proceedings, authored several book chapters, and is co-author of the text "Statistical Quality Design and Control: Contemporary Concepts and Methods". He is a Fellow of the Society of Manufacturing Engineers, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, and CIRP (International Academy for Production Engineering). His honors and recognitions include the SME Outstanding Young Manufacturing Engineer Award, Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers, SAE Ralph R. Teetor Award, SME Education Award, SAE International John Connor Environmental Award, and ASME William T. Ennor Manufacturing Technology Award.David A. Dornfeld received his Ph.D. in Mechanical Engineering from UW-Madison in 1976 and was Will C. Hall Family Professor and Chair of Mechanical Engineering at University of California Berkeley. He led the Laboratory for Manufacturing and Sustainability (LMAS) and the Sustainable Manufacturing Partnership studying green/sustainable manufacturing; manufacturing processes; precision manufacturing; process monitoring and optimization. He published over 400 papers, authored three research monographs, contributed chapters to several books and had seven patents. He was a Member of the National Academy of Engineering (NAE), a Fellow of American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), recipient of ASME/SME M. Eugene Merchant Manufacturing Medal, 2015, Ennor Award, 2010 and Blackall Machine Tool and Gage Award, 1986, Fellow of Society of Manufacturing Engineers (SME), recipient of 2004 SME Fredrick W. Taylor Research Medal, member Japan Society of Precision Engineering (JSPE) and recipient of 2005 JSPE Takagi Prize, Fellow of University of Tokyo Engineering and Fellow of CIRP (International Academy for Production Engineering). He passed away in March 2016.Barbara S. Linke obtained her diploma and doctoral degree in Mechanical Engineering from the RWTH Aachen University, Germany. She worked at the Laboratory for Machine Tools and Production Engineering WZL from 2002 - 2010 on grinding technology and tooling engineering. From 2010 - 2012, Barbara was a research fellow at the University of California Berkeley. Since November 2012, Barbara Linke has been an assistant professor at the University of California Davis.

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