Series Preface xiii Acknowledgments xv One History of Intellectual Disability 1 Early Beginnings 1 The Turn of the Century: 1900 to 1950 4 The Age of Assessment: Late 1950s to 1970 6 1980s to the Present 8 Summary 14 Test Yourself 15 Two Prevalence, Causes, Issues, and Comorbid Disorders 17 Etiology of Intellectual Disabilities: Subtypes 17 Differential Diagnoses 27 Comorbidity 27 Test Yourself 28 Three Current Intellectual Disability Diagnostic and Federal Education Criteria 30 The DSM-5 30 American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities 34 Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 37 Differential Diagnoses and Comorbid Conditions 44 Specific Learning Disabilities 46 Test Yourself 46 Four Legal Issues and Concerns 49 Education and the Law: Issues and Concerns 49 Test Yourself 60 Five Theories of Intelligence and the Flynn Effect 63 Spearman's Two-Factor Theory 63 Thurstone's Primary Mental Abilities 64 Cattell-Horn-Carroll Theory 64 TriarchicTheory of Intelligence 66 Planning, Attention-Arousal, Simultaneous, and Successive Theory of Intelligence 66 Theory of Multiple Intelligences 67 Flynn Effect 68 Intellectual Disability and Capital Punishment Cases 70 Test Yourself 72 Six Assessment of an Intellectual Disability 74 Designing a Test Battery 76 Areas to Assess 78 Test Yourself 91 Seven Integration of Assessment Results 93 Report Sample #1 93 Report Sample #2 100 Test Yourself 108 Eight Postassessment Planning 110 Common Parent Reactions to Learning a Child has a Disability 111 Guidelines for Parents of Individuals with Developmental Disabilities 112 Transition Planning 113 Self-Determination and Individuals with Developmental Disabilities 115 Application of Self-Determination Practices 117 Results ofThe Arc Survey: FINDS 2011 120 Test Yourself 122 Appendix A State Departments of Special Education 124 Appendix B AAIDD and The Arc Position Statement on the Criminal Justice System 133 Appendix C American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (AAIDD) 138 Appendix D The Arc Position Statement on Self-Determination 140 Appendix E AAIDD andThe Arc Position Statement on Self-Advocacy 142 Appendix F The Arc Position Statement on Education 146 Appendix G The Arc Position Statement on Employment 149 Appendix H Helpful Websites 153 References 157 About the Authors 166 Index 169
ALAN W. BRUE, PHD, is a nationally certified school psychologist. He provides a wide range of school psychological services to metro-Atlanta school districts. LINDA WILMSHURST, PHD, is an associate professor of psychology at Elon University and a licensed clinical (ABPP) and school psychologist. She authored six books, including Essentials of Child Psychopathology and Clinical and Educational Child Psychology. Alan and Linda co-authored A Parent's Guide to Special Education and The Complete Guide to Special Education.