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Exotic Animal Hematology and Cytology
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Table of Contents

Preface xi Acknowledgments xiii Scientific Names Used in Text xv SECTION I EVALUATION OF PERIPHERAL BLOOD FILMS AND HEMIC CYTOLOGY 1. Peripheral Blood of Mammals 3 Normal Hemic Cells 3 Erythrocytes 3 Leukocytes 4 Platelets 8 Evaluation of Mammalian Erythrocytes 16 Inflammatory Leukogram in Mammals 25 Neutrophilia of Excitement and Stress in Mammals 28 Eosinophilia and Eosinopenia in Mammals 30 Thrombocytopenia and Thrombocytosis in Mammals 32 References 33 2. Peripheral Blood of Birds 37 Evaluation of Avian Erythrocytes 37 Anemia in Birds 40 Hypochromasia 44 Avian Erythrocytosis 44 Evaluation of Avian Leukocytes 44 Inflammatory Leukogram in Birds 51 Heterophilia of Excitement and Stress in Birds 54 Leukopenia in Birds 55 Heteropenia 56 Lymphopenia 56 Monocytosis in Birds 56 Eosinophilia and Eosinopenia in Birds 57 Thrombocytopenia 58 Thrombocytosis 58 Normal Variations in the Hemogram of Birds 58 References 60 3. Peripheral Blood of Reptiles 67 Evaluation of Reptilian Erythrocytes and Anemia 67 Inclusion Body Disease 71 Leukocytes and Inflammatory in Reptiles 71 Heterophils 72 Eosinophils 73 Basophils 73 Lymphocytes 73 Monocytes 73 Reference Values 75 Inflammation 77 Considerations in the Interpretation of the Reptilian Hemogram 79 Leukemia 79 Eosinophilia in Reptiles 79 Basophilia in Reptiles 79 Lymphocytosis and Lymphopenia in Reptiles 82 Monocytosis in Reptiles 84 Reptile Thrombocytes 85 References 85 4. Peripheral Blood of Amphibians 89 Evaluation of Amphibian Erythrocytes 89 Evaluation of Amphibian Leukocytes 90 Evaluation of Amphibian Thrombocytes 93 References 94 5. Peripheral Blood of Fish 97 Evaluation of Fish Erythrocytes 97 Evaluation of Fish Leukocytes 101 Leukocytes of Commonly Studied Teleost Fish 108 Evaluation of Fish Thrombocytes and Hemostasis 111 References 112 6. Blood Parasites 115 Avian Blood Parasites 115 Reptile Blood Parasites 122 Amphibian Blood Parasites 125 Fish Blood Parasites 125 References 127 7. Bone Marrow/Hematopoiesis 131 Mammalian Hematopoiesis and Bone Marrow Evaluation 131 Avian Hematopoiesis and Bone Marrow Evaluation 138 Avian Hematopoietic Tissue Other Than Bone Marrow 145 Reptile Hematopoiesis and Bone Marrow Evaluation 145 Amphibian Hematopoiesis and Bone Marrow Evaluation 148 Piscine Hematopoiesis 149 References 151 SECTION II BLOOD SAMPLE AND BONE MARROW COLLECTION 8. Blood Sample Collection and Preparation in Small Mammals 157 Small Rodents: Mice (Mus musculus) Rats (Rattus norvegicus) Gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) 157 Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) 158 Guinea Pig (Cavia porcellus) and Chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) 160 Sugar Glider (Petaurus breviceps) 160 Hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) 161 Ferret (Mustela putorius furo) 161 Other Methods of Blood Collection 162 Blood Sample Preparation 163 References 163 9. Blood Sample Collection and Preparation in Birds 165 Restraint 165 Blood Collection 165 References 172 10. Blood Sample Collection and Preparation in Reptiles 173 References 178 11. Blood Sample Collection and Preparation in Amphibians 181 References 182 12. Blood Sample Collection and Preparation in Fish 183 References 185 13. Bone Marrow Collection and Evaluation 187 Mammals 187 Birds 190 Reptiles 194 References 195 SECTION III HEMATOLOGIC TECHNIQUES 14. Hematologic Techniques in Lower Vertebrates 199 Evaluation of Erythrocytes 199 Evaluation of Leukocytes 202 Evaluation of Thrombocytes 204 References 204 SECTION IV CYTODIAGNOSIS 15. Normal Mammalian Cytology 209 The Digestive Tract 209 The Respiratory Tract 212 The Skin 212 The Eye 214 Joint Fluid 214 Lymph Nodes 215 Spleen 216 Liver 216 Kidney 217 References 217 16. Normal Avian Cytology 219 The Digestive Tract 219 Respiratory Tract 220 The Skin 221 The Eye 223 Joint Fluid 224 Lymphoid Tissue 225 Liver 226 Kidney 227 References 227 17. Normal Herptile (Reptiles and Amphibian) Cytology 229 The Digestive Tract 229 Respiratory Tract 229 The Skin 232 References 233 18. The Cytology of Inflammation 235 Neutrophilic/Heterophilic Inflammation of Mammals 235 Heterophilic Inflammation of Birds and Reptiles 237 Septic Inflammation 240 Mixed Cell Inflammation 240 Macrophagic Inflammation 240 Eosinophilic Inflammation 243 Inflammatory Lesions of the Alimentary Tract 244 Inflammation of the Respiratory Tract 247 Inflammation of the Skin 252 Inflammation of Synovial Joints 253 Inflammation of Lymphoid Tissue 257 Inflammation of the Liver 258 Ophthalmic Inflammation 259 Inflammation of Fish 262 References 263 19. The Cytology of Hyperplasia/Benign Neoplasia 267 Adipose 267 Hepatic Lipidosis 268 Epidermal Cyst 270 Sebaceous Cysts 271 Feather Cysts 271 Papillomas 271 Papillomatosis 272 Histiocytoma 272 Chordomas 273 Leiomyoma 273 Squamous Hyperplasia/Metaplasia 273 Lymphoid Hyperplasia 274 Thyroid Hyperplasia 274 References 274 20. The Cytology of Malignant Neoplasia 277 General Cellular Features of Malignant Neoplasia 277 Cytoplasmic Features of Malignant Neoplasia 277 Nuclear Features of Malignant Neoplasia 278 Structural Features of Malignant Neoplasia 280 Cellular Arrangements 291 Lower Vertebrates (Birds Reptiles and Amphibians) 292 Neoplasia of the Gastrointestinal Tract 293 Neoplasia of the Respiratory Tract 293 Cutaneous Neoplasms 294 Ocular Neoplasia 298 Neoplasms of Joints and Bone 298 Liver Neoplasms 298 Renal Neoplasms 298 Reproductive Tract Neoplasia 300 Neoplasia of Ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) 300 Neoplasia of African Pygmy Hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris) 300 Malignant Neoplasia in Fish 301 References 302 21. Effusions 309 Transudate 310 Modified Transudates 310 Exudative Effusion 311 Hemorrhagic and Chylous Effusion 312 Malignant Effusion 315 Hemorrhagic Exudative and Malignant Effusions of Lower Vertebrates 316 Accidental Aspiration of the Liver 318 Synovial Cyst 319 Cutaneous Cysts 320 Mucocele 320 References 320 22. Infectious Agents 323 Avian Pox 323 Mycoplasmosis 323 Clostridium 323 Campylobacter 324 Spirochetes 326 Chlamydophila/Chlamydia 326 Mycobacterium 328 Candidiasis 330 Cryptococcus neoformans 331 Macrorhabdus ornithogaster in Birds 331 Saccharomyces Yeast in Rabbits 332 Aspergillosis 332 Chytridiomycosis 333 Chrysosporium Anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii 334 Saprolegniasis 334 Trichomoniasis 335 Cryptosporidiosis 336 Giardia 338 References 338 SECTION V SAMPLE COLLECTION FOR CYTOLOGY 23. Cytology Sampling Techniques and Evaluation 345 Kohler Illumination 345 Sample Collection 346 Fine-Needle Aspiration Biopsy 346 Contact Smears (Touch Imprints or Impression Smears) and Squash Preparations (Compression Preparations) 347 Fluid Samples 348 Sample Preparation 350 Evaluation of the Cytologic Sample 351 Basic Cytologic Responses 353 References 353 SECTION VI WET MOUNT MICROSCOPY OF FISH 24. Wet Mount Microscopy in Fish 357 Gill Biopsies 357 Mucus Smears and Fin Biopsies 357 Ciliate Protozoa 359 Flagellate Protozoa 362 Myxozoa 365 Microsporidians 367 Monogeneans 367 Digenean Trematodes 369 Turbellarians 369 Crustaceans 370 Nematodes 371 References 371 25. Wet-Mount Sampling Techniques in Fish 373 Sampling Techniques 373 Mucus Smear 373 Fin Biopsy 374 Gill Biopsy 374 Fecal Sample 375 References 375 Appendices 377 A. Stains and Solutions Used in Hematology and Cytology 377 Acid-Fast Stain 377 Gram s Stain 377 Macchiavello s Stain 378 Modified Gimenez Stain 378 New Methylene Blue Stain 378 Standard Natt and Herrick s Solution and Stain 379 Elasmobranch-Modified Natt and Herrick s Solution and Stain 379 Elasmobranch-Modified Heparin EDTA 380 Elasmobranch-Modified ACD Solution 380 Quick or Stat Stains 380 Sudan III and Sudan IV Stains 381 Wright s Stain 381 Wright Giemsa Stain 381 B. Hematologic Values 383 Index 393

About the Author

Terry W. Campbell, DVM, PhD, is an Associate Professor of Zoo Medicine at the College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences at Colorado State University.

Reviews

This book is a must-have reference for any avian and exotic pet practice, especially if laboratory testing is done on-site. It is also an excellent resource for understanding and interpreting laboratory results and explaining pathologic diagnoses. (Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 15 September 2015) Exotic Animal Hematology and Cytology is the fourth edition of a book that has become an essential text on the bookshelf of many exotic animal practitioners.' (Veterinary Record 2016) "Already in 1988, when the first edition of Avian Hematology and Cytology came out, the book was regarded as a highly useful reference to aid in the cytodiagnosis of diseases in birdgs, being unique in its focus on collection and evaluation of hematologic and cytologic samples. Now, almost 30 years later, the recently published fourth edition of the book still retains its position as the frontrunner in the field of avian and exotic animal hematology and cytology." (EJCAP Summer 2016) EXOTIC Animal Hematology and Cytology is the fourth edition of a book that has become an essential text on the bookshelf of many exotic animal practitioners.

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