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Fibonacci's "Liber Abaci"


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Table of Contents

* Introduction * Liber Abaci: Here Begins the First Chapter * On the Multiplication of Whole Numbers * On the Addition of Whole Numbers * On the Subtraction of Lesser Numbers from Greater Numbers * On the Divisions of Integral Numbers * ON the Multiplication of Integral Numbers with Fractions * On the Addition and Subtraction and Division of Numbers with Fractions and the Reduction of Several Parts to a Single Part * On Finding the Value of Merchandise by the Principal Method * On the Barter of Merchandise and Similar Things * On Companies and Their Members * On the Alloying of Monies * Here Begins Chapter Twelve * On the Method Elchataym and How with It Nearly All Problems of Mathematics Are Solved * On Finding Square and Cubic Roots, and on the Multiplication, Division, and Subtraction of Them, and On the Treatment of Binomials and Apotomes and their Roots * On Pertinent Geometric Rules And on Problems of Algebra and Almuchabala * Notes for Liber Abaci * Bibliography

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From the reviews:

"Leonardo of Pisa's Liber Abaci (Book of Calculation) is one of the most important books in the history of European mathematics. Leonardo learned his mathematics from the Islamic mathematical tradition (some have even argued that he should be considered part of that tradition), but he wrote his books in Latin. As a result, he became one of the most important mediators of that tradition to European readers.

The Liber Abaci focused on "calculation." From our point of view, most of the contents are either arithmetic or algebra. It starts off with an extensive and detailed discussion of the use of "the nine Indian figures" to represent numbers and to perform arithmetical operations with them. The "nine figures" are, of course, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9, with 0 being treated as a separate sign. The book then goes on to deal with a large number of problems that we would describe as algebraic. Most of these reduce to linear equations (this includes systems of linear equations and also linear diophantine equations). The final chapter discusses quadratic equations. All of this is done, of course, without any sort of algebraic symbolism.

As Heinz Lueneberg has pointed out in a recent issue of FOCUS, this is an amazing book, and it is somewhat frustrating that we had to wait for the 800th anniversary of its original publication to see an English translation. But here it is at last, the Liber Abaci in English. It is now possible for mathematicians who are interested in history to read it, and for students to read portions of it in their history courses.

One final comment: attentive readers will note that the name "Fibonacci" does not occur in this brief review. That is because Leonardo never used that name: it is a nickname given to him by a 19th century historian of mathematics. I'm enough of a purist to want to refer to Leonardo as he referred to himself: Leonardo of Pisa, of the Bonacci family. He was a great mathematician, and here is an accessible and readable edition of his most famous book. Don't miss the opportunity to get a copy."

MAA Online, March 2003

"The Liber abaci of Leonardo Pisano (today commonly called Fibonacci) is one of the fundamental works of European mathematics. No other book did more to establish the basic framework of arithmetic and algebra as they developed in the Western world.

...its position as the only modern text of this fundamental work will make this translation an essential part of any collection in the history of mathematics."


" . . . Even the Latin original has been hard to find outside the rare book room . . . But now this cornerstone of mathematical culture has finally become widely available with the appearance of Fibonacci's 'Liber Abaci': A Translation into Modern English of Leonardo Pisano's Book of Calculation."


"This book is the translation of Baldassarre Boncompagni's Latin edition published in Rome in 1857. This is the first and so far the only translation to a modern language of an important rarity. ... The titles of the chapters describe the topics quite well. ... this important book should be on the shelves of anyone interested in history, culture, mathematics and the interaction of these basic human values." (Peter Hajnal, Acta Scientiarum Mathematicarum, Vol. 70, 2004)

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