Finite Mathematics

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Preface ix

About the Authors xi

1 Linear Equations and Mathematical Concepts 11.1 Solving Linear Equations 2

1.2 Equations of Lines and Their Graphs 7

1.3 Solving Systems of Linear Equations 15

1.4 The Numbers *𝜋* and *e* 21

1.5 Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 24

1.6 Variation 32

1.7 Unit Conversions and Dimensional Analysis 38

2 Mathematics of Finance 472.1 Simple and Compound Interest 47

2.2 Ordinary Annuity 55

2.3 Amortization 59

2.4 Arithmetic and Geometric Sequences 63

3 Matrix Algebra 713.1 Matrices 72

3.2 Matrix Notation, Arithmetic, and Augmented Matrices 78

3.3 Gauss-Jordan Elimination 89

3.4 Matrix Inversion and Input-Output Analysis 100

4 Linear Programming - Geometric Solutions 116Introduction 116

4.1 Graphing Linear Inequalities 117

4.2 Graphing Systems of Linear Inequalities 121

4.3 Geometric Solutions to Linear Programs 125

5 Linear Programming - Simplex Method 1365.1 The Standard Maximization Problem (SMP) 137

5.2 Tableaus and Pivot Operations 142

5.3 Optimal Solutions and the Simplex Method 149

5.4 Dual Programs 161

5.5 Non-SMP Linear Programs 167

6 Linear Programming - Application Models 182 7 Set and Probability Relationships 2037.1 Sets 204

7.2 Venn Diagrams 210

7.3 Tree Diagrams 216

7.4 Combinatorics 221

7.5 Mathematical Probability 231

7.6 Bayes' Rule and Decision Trees 245

8 Random Variables and Probability Distributions 2598.1 Random Variables 259

8.2 Bernoulli Trials and the Binomial Distribution 265

8.3 The Hypergeometric Distribution 273

8.4 The Poisson Distribution 279

9 Markov Chains 2859.1 Transition Matrices and Diagrams 286

9.2 Transitions 291

9.3 Regular Markov Chains 295

9.4 Absorbing Markov Chains 304

10 Mathematical Statistics 31410.1 Graphical Descriptions of Data 315

10.2 Measures of Central Tendency and Dispersion 323

10.3 The Uniform Distribution 331

10.4 The Normal Distribution 334

10.5 Normal Distribution Applications 348

10.6 Developing and Conducting a Survey 363

11 Enrichment in Finite Mathematics 37111.1 Game Theory 372

11.2 Applications in Finance and Economics 385

11.3 Applications in Social and Life Sciences 394

11.4 Monte Carlo Method 403

11.5 Dynamic Programming 422

Answers to Odd Numbered Exercises 439

Using Technology 502

Glossary 506

Index 513

Carla C. Morris, PhD, is Assistant Professor of Mathematics in the Associate in Arts Program at the University of Delaware. A member of The Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences and the Mathematical Association of America, Dr. Morris teaches courses ranging from college algebra to calculus and statistics. Robert M. Stark, PhD, is Professor Emeritus in the Departments of Mathematical Sciences and Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of Delaware. Dr. Stark's teaching and research interests include applied probability, mathematical optimization, operations research, and mathematics education.

"I would recommend this book to undergraduate students in mathematics, economics, engineering who are interested in finite mathematics." (Zentralblatt MATH 2016) would recommend this book to undergraduate students in mathematics, economics, engineering who are interested in nite mathematics. Also, researchers in the above elds might be interested in this book.

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