We use cookies to provide essential features and services. By using our website you agree to our use of cookies .

×

COVID-19 Response at Fishpond

Read what we're doing...

Forensic Chemistry
By

Rating

Product Description
Product Details

Table of Contents

About the editor, xii Contributors, xiii Series preface, xv Preface, xvi 1 Drugs of abuse, 1 Niamh Nic Daeid 1.1 Introduction, 1 1.2 Law and legislation, 2 1.3 Sampling, 4 1.3.1 Random sampling and representative sampling, 6 1.3.2 Arbitrary sampling, 7 1.3.3 Statistical sampling methods, 8 1.4 Specific drug types, 9 1.4.1 Cannabis, 9 1.4.2 Heroin, 14 1.4.3 Cocaine, 22 1.4.4 Amphetamine ]type stimulants, 27 1.4.5 New psychoactive substances, 33 1.5 Conclusions, 36 Acknowledgements, 36 References, 36 2 Textiles, 40 Max Houck 2.1 Introduction, 40 2.2 A science of reconstruction, 40 2.2.1 Classification, 41 2.2.2 Comparison, 42 2.2.3 Transfer and persistence, 43 2.3 Textiles, 43 2.3.1 Information, 44 2.3.2 Morphology, 45 2.4 Natural fibers, 48 2.4.1 Animal fibers, 48 2.4.2 Plant fibers, 51 2.5 Manufactured fibers, 52 2.6 Yarns and fabrics, 55 2.6.1 Fabric construction, 56 2.6.2 Finishes, 59 2.7 Fiber types, 59 2.7.1 Acetate, 59 2.7.2 Acrylic, 59 2.7.3 Aramids, 60 2.7.4 Modacrylic, 60 2.7.5 Nylon, 61 2.7.6 Olefins (polypropylene and polyethylene), 61 2.7.7 Polyester, 62 2.7.8 Rayon, 62 2.7.9 Spandex, 65 2.7.10 Triacetate, 66 2.7.11 Bicomponent fibers, 66 2.8 Chemistry, 67 2.8.1 General analysis, 67 2.8.2 Instrumental analysis, 68 2.8.3 Color, 69 2.8.4 Raman spectroscopy, 70 2.8.5 Interpretation, 71 2.9 The future, 72 References, 72 3 Paint and coatings examination, 75 Paul Kirkbride 3.1 Introduction, 75 3.2 Paint chemistry, 76 3.2.1 Binders, 76 3.2.2 Dyes and pigments, 86 3.2.3 Additives, 89 3.3 Automotive paint application, 91 3.4 Forensic examination of paint, 92 3.4.1 General considerations, 92 3.4.2 Microscopy, 95 3.4.3 Vibrational spectrometry, 96 3.4.4 SEM ]EDX and XRF, 106 3.4.5 Pyrolytic techniques, 111 3.4.6 Color analysis, 116 3.5 Paint evidence evaluation and expert opinion, 120 References, 128 Contents vii 4 Forensic fire debris analysis, 135 Reta Newman 4.1 Introduction, 135 4.2 Process overview, 135 4.3 Sample collection, 136 4.4 Ignitable liquid classification, 137 4.5 Petroleum ]based ignitable liquids, 144 4.6 Non ]petroleum ]based ignitable liquids, 160 4.7 Sample preparation, 161 4.8 Sample analysis and data interpretation, 166 4.9 Summary, 172 References, 173 5 Explosives, 175 John Goodpaster 5.1 The nature of an explosion, 175 5.1.1 Types of explosions, 175 5.1.2 Explosive effects, 176 5.2 Physical and chemical properties of explosives, 180 5.2.1 Low explosives, 181 5.2.2 High explosives, 186 5.3 Protocols for the forensic examination of explosives and explosive devices, 192 5.3.1 Recognition of evidence, 192 5.3.2 Portable technology and on ]scene analysis, 193 5.3.3 In the laboratory, 194 5.4 Chemical analysis of explosives, 200 5.4.1 Consensus standards (TWGFEX), 201 5.4.2 Chemical tests, 203 5.4.3 X ]ray techniques, 204 5.4.4 Spectroscopy, 207 5.4.5 Separations, 212 5.4.6 Gas chromatography, 213 5.4.7 Mass spectrometry, 215 5.4.8 Provenance and attribution determinations, 219 5.5 Ongoing research, 221 Acknowledgements, 222 References, 222 Further reading, 226 6 Analysis of glass evidence, 228 Jose Almirall and Tatiana Trejos 6.1 Introduction to glass examinations and comparisons, 228 6.2 Glass, the material, 231 6.2.1 Physical and chemical properties, 231 6.2.2 Manufacturing, 233 6.2.3 Fractures and their significance, 236 6.2.4 Forensic considerations: Transfer and persistence of glass, 238 6.3 A brief history of glass examinations, 241 6.4 Glass examinations and comparison, standard laboratory practices, 242 6.4.1 Physical measurements, 243 6.4.2 Optical measurements, 244 6.4.3 Chemical measurements: elemental analysis, 247 6.5 Interpretation of glass evidence examinations and comparisons, 256 6.5.1 Defining the match criteria, 256 6.5.2 Descriptive statistics, 256 6.5.3 Match criteria for refractive index measurements, 257 6.5.4 Informing power of analytical methods, forming the opinion, 260 6.5.5 Report writing and testimony, 262 6.6 Case examples, 263 6.6.1 Case 1: Hit ]and ]run case, 263 6.6.2 Case 2: Multiple transfer of glass in breaking ]and ]entry case, 264 6.7 Conclusions, 265 References, 266 7 The forensic comparison of soil and geologic microtraces, 273 Richard E. Bisbing 7.1 Soil and geologic microtraces as trace evidence, 273 7.2 Comparison process, 274 7.3 Developing expertise, 278 7.4 Genesis of soil, 279 7.5 Genesis of geologic microtraces, 284 7.6 Collecting questioned samples of unknown origin, 287 7.7 Collecting soil samples of known origin, 288 7.8 Initial comparisons, 290 7.9 Color comparison, 290 7.10 Texture comparison, 293 7.11 Mineral comparison, 297 7.12 Modal analysis, 301 7.13 Automated instrumental modal analysis, 308 7.14 Ecological constituents, 310 7.15 Anthropogenic constituents, 312 7.16 Reporting comparison results, 312 7.17 Future directions and research, 314 Acknowledgments, 314 References, 315 Further reading, 316 8 Chemical analysis for the scientific examination of questioned documents, 318 Gerald M. LaPorte 8.1 Static approach, 320 8.2 Dynamic approach, 324 8.3 Ink composition, 324 8.4 Examinations, 328 8.4.1 Physical examinations, 329 8.4.2 Optical examinations, 332 8.4.3 Chemical examinations, 333 8.4.4 Paper examinations, 339 8.5 Questioned documents, crime scenes and evidential considerations, 342 8.5.1 How was the questioned document produced?, 342 8.5.2 What evidence can be used to associate a questioned document with the crime scene and/or victim?, 343 8.5.3 Are there other forensic examinations that can be performed?, 345 8.5.4 Demonstrating that a suspect altered a document, 346 8.6 Interpreting results and rendering conclusions, 347 References, 350 9 Chemical methods for the detection of latent fingermarks, 354 Amanda A. Frick, Patrick Fritz, and Simon W. Lewis 9.1 Introduction, 354 9.2 Sources of latent fingermark residue, 355 9.2.1 Aqueous components, 356 9.2.2 Lipid components, 357 9.2.3 Sources of compositional variation, 359 9.3 Chemical processing of latent fingermarks, 361 9.3.1 Amino acid sensitive reagents, 361 9.3.2 Reagents based on colloidal metals, 370 9.3.3 Lipid ]sensitive reagents, 377 9.3.4 Other techniques, 383 9.4 Experimental considerations for latent fingermark chemistry research, 384 9.5 Conclusions and future directions, 387 Acknowledgements, 388 References, 388 Further reading, 398 10 Chemical methods in firearms analysis, 400 Walter F. Rowe 10.1 Introduction, 400 10.2 Basic firearms examination, 400 10.2.1 Cleaning bullets and cartridges, 402 10.2.2 Analysis of bullet lead, 404 10.2.3 Serial number restoration, 406 10.3 Shooting incident reconstruction, 408 10.3.1 Muzzle ]to ]target determinations, 411 10.3.2 Firearm primers, 416 10.3.3 Collection of gunshot residue, 425 10.4 Conclusion, 433 References, 433 11 Forensic microscopy, 439 Christopher S. Palenik 11.1 The microscope as a tool, 439 11.2 Motivation, 440 11.2.1 Intimidation, 442 11.2.2 Limitations, 442 11.3 Scale, 442 11.3.1 Scale and magnification, 443 11.3.2 Noting scale, 443 11.3.3 Analytical volume and limits of detection, 443 11.4 Finding, 445 11.4.1 Spatial resolution, 445 11.4.2 Recovery resolution, 447 11.4.3 Stereomicroscope, 447 11.5 Preparing, 448 11.5.1 Preservation and documentation, 448 11.5.2 Isolation, 450 11.5.3 Mounting, 451 11.6 Looking, 455 11.6.1 Light microscopy, 456 11.6.2 Scanning electron microscopy, 457 11.7 Analyzing, 458 11.7.1 Polarized light microscopy, 458 11.7.2 Energy dispersive X ]ray spectroscopy, 462 11.7.3 FTIR and Raman spectroscopy, 464 11.7.4 Other methods, 465 11.8 Thinking, 465 11.9 Thanking, 467 References, 467 12 Chemometrics, 469 Ruth Smith 12.1 Introduction, 469 12.2 Chromatograms and spectra as multivariate data, 470 12.3 Data preprocessing, 470 12.3.1 Baseline correction, 471 12.3.2 Smoothing, 473 12.3.3 Retention ]time alignment, 473 12.3.4 Normalization and scaling, 475 12.4 Unsupervised pattern recognition, 477 12.4.1 Hierarchical cluster analysis, 478 12.4.2 Principal components analysis, 480 12.5 Supervised pattern recognition procedures, 485 12.5.1 k ]Nearest neighbors, 486 12.5.2 Discriminant analysis, 487 12.5.3 Soft independent modeling of class analogy, 492 12.5.4 Model validation, 493 12.6 Applications of chemometric procedures in forensic science, 494 12.6.1 Fire debris and explosives, 495 12.6.2 Controlled substances and counterfeit medicines, 496 12.6.3 Trace evidence, 497 12.6.4 Impression evidence, 499 12.7 Conclusions, 499 Acknowledgements, 500 References, 500 Index, 504

About the Author

Jay Siegel, Emeritus Professor of Forensic Science, Michigan State University Jay Siegel is Director of the Forensic and Investigative Sciences Program at Indiana University Purdue University, Indianapolis and Chair of the Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology. He holds a Ph.D. in Analytical Chemistry from George Washington University. He worked for 3 years at the Virginia Bureau of Forensic Sciences, analyzing drugs, fire residues and trace evidence. From 1980 to 2004 he was professor of forensic chemistry and Director of the forensic science program at Michigan State University in the School of Criminal Justice. He is Editor in Chief of the Encyclopedia of Forensic Sciences, author of Forensic Science: A Beginner's Guide and Fundamentals of Forensic Science and has over 30 publications in forensic science journals. Dr. Siegel was awarded the 2005 Paul Kirk Award for lifetime achievement in forensic science. In February 2009, he was named Distinguished Fellow by the American Academy of Forensic Sciences. In April 2009 he was named the Distinguished Alumni Scholar Award by his alma mater, George Washington University.

Ask a Question About this Product More...
Write your question below:
Look for similar items by category
Home » Books » Science » Chemistry » Analytic
Item ships from and is sold by Fishpond Retail Limited.
Back to top