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Forest Hydrology and Catchment Management


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Preface.- List of Symbols.- 1. The Basics of Catchment Hydrology.- Abstract.- 1.1. About Water Catchments and Stream Networks.- 1.2. Topographic Analysis and Catchment Boundaries.- 1.2.1. Catchment Flow Vectors and Streamlines.- 1.2.2. Defining Catchment Boundaries for a Specific Stream Cross-Section.- 1.3. Stream Networks.- 1.4. Hydrologic Units and Catchment Arithmetic.- 1.5. Introduction to Hydrographs and Averaging of Units.- 1.5.1. Runoff Expressed in Depth Units.- 1.5.2. The Instantaneous Hydrograph.- 1.6. How Does Forest Hydrology Differ from Hydrology?.- 1.7. What's Different About Australian Forest Hydrology?.- 1.8. References.- 2. Hydrologic Measurements and the Water Balance.- Abstract.- 2.1. Introduction.- 2.2. Basics of Measurement on a Catchment.- 2.2.1. Rainfall and Hyetograph Measurement.- 2.2.2. Hydrograph Measurement.- 2.2.3. Measurements of Slope Water Storage.- 2.2.4. Measurement of Plant Water Use.- 2.3. Analysis of Streamflow Hydrographs.- 2.3.1. Flow Separation Analysis.- 2.4. Using Field Data to Form a Water Balance.- 2.5. Using "Zhang Curves" to Estimate Water Balance.- 2.5.1. Percentage Runoff and Rainfall Elasticity using Zhang Curves.- 2.6. Conclusions.- 2.7. References.- 3. The Fundamental Building Blocks -First Order Catchments.- Abstract.- 3.1. Introduction.- 3.2. The Dominance of "Headwater Streams".- 3.3. The Prototypical First Order Catchment and Streams.- 3.4. Groundwater Outflow vs Downslope Soil Movement.- 3.5. Colluvium and Bedrock Erosion.- 3.6. Moving Upstream - Can We Define Zero Order Streams?.- 3.6.1. Ephemerality of Low Order Streams.- 3.7. Beds and Streams.- 3.8. Hydrologic Characteristics of Forested Catchment Soils.- 3.9. Continuum Levels.- 3.10. Characteristic Outflow Behaviour of Catchment Elements.- 3.11. Similitude and Scaling of Catchment Processes.- 3.12. References.- 4. Dynamics of Catchment and Slope Processes.- Abstract.- 4.1. The Role of Science and Maths in Slope Dynamics.- 4.2. Overview of Dynamics of Slope Processes.- 4.3. The Stream Channel as a Connecting Link.- 4.4. Overland Flow and Slope Infiltration Measuring Infiltration.- 4.5. Saturated (Groundwater) and Unsaturated Flow.- 4.5.1. Applications of Groundwater Theory to Model Forest Slopes.- 4.5.2. "Perched" Groundwater and "Deep" Groundwater.- 4.5.3. Does a "Wave" of Groundwater Recharge Occur?.- 4.6. Slope Evaporation.- 4.7. Hewlett's Variable Source Area Concept of Stream Runoff.- 4.8. Use of Hydrographs to Examine Dynamic Processes.- 4.9. Conclusion.- 4.10. References.- 5. Field Measurement of Water Use of Forests.- Abstract.- 5.1. Why Study This?.- 5.2. Paired Catchment Experiments.- 5.2.1. What Is a Paired Catchment Project?.- 5.2.2. An Example of a Paired Catchment Project: Croppers Creek.- 5.2.3. Traditional Approach to Paired Catchment Calibration and Analysis.- 5.2.4. A Modern Example of Paired Catchment Statistical Treatment.- 5.2.5. What Time Units to Use?.- 5.2.6. How Long Does Calibration Need to Be?.- 5.2.7. Where Do Paired Catchments Sit in the World of Experiments?.- 5.2.8. Paired Catchment Projects in Australia.- 5.3. Single Catchment Studies of Water Use.- 5.4. Plot Measurements of Water Balance.- 5.4.1. Rachel Nolan and Impact of Fires.- 5.4.2. Advantages and Disadvantages of Plot Hydrology Work.- 5.4.3. Where Do Plots Sit in the World of Experiments?.- 5.4.4. "Closing the Water Balance" on Plots.- 5.5. The Scaling Issue.- 5.5.1. Spreadsheet Approach of Weighted Assessment.- 5.5.2. Modelling Approach to Scaling.- 5.5.3. Scaling Up Controversies.- 5.6. In Conclusion.- 5.7. References.- 6. Impacts of Native Forest Management on Catchment Hydrology.- Abstract.- 6.1. Introduction.- 6.1.1. Sources of Information and the Role of Science Melbourne's Water Catchment Debate; an Example of Meeting Information Needs.- 6.2. Fog Drip and Interception by Native Forests.- 6.2.1. Fog Drip.- 6.2.2. Canopy Interception.- 6.3. Basic Runoff Curves for Native Eucalypt Forest.- 6.4. Mountain Ash Water Use and Runoff Curves.- 6.4.1. Quantifying the Yield Decline - "Kuczera Curves".- 6.4.2. Response to Logging.- 6.4.3. Other Melbourne Water Paired Catchment Logging Experiments.- 6.5. An "Age-Yield" Response for Non-Ash Eucalypts?.- 6.5.1. Yambulla Paired Catchment and Plot Studies.- 6.5.2. Karuah Paired Catchment Project.- 6.5.3. Tantawangalo Paired Catchment Project.- 6.5.4. Western Australian Work on Jarrah.- 6.5.5. Political Aspects of Native Forest Water Use.- 6.6. Thinning of Native Forests for Water Production.- 6.6.1. Thinning of Mountain Ash Forests.- 6.6.2. Thinning of Mountain Forest at Tantawangalo.- 6.6.3. Thinning of Jarrah.- 6.7. Conclusions.- 6.8. References.- 7. Hydrology of Man-Made Forests (Plantations).- Abstract.- 7.1. Introduction.- 7.1.1. What is Different About Plantations?.- 7.1.2. Are All Plantations the Same?.- 7.1.3. Defining the "Water Use" of a Plantation.- 7.2. Runoff Curve Approaches to Plantation Water Use.- 7.2.1. "Zhang Curves".- 7.2.2. "Holmes and Sinclair" Relationships.- 7.2.3. Nanni Curves.- 7.3. Water Use of Radiata Pine on Well-Drained Sites.- 7.3.1. Absolute Water Use.- 7.3.2. Relative Change in Water Use.- 7.4. Water Use of Eucalyptus Plantations.- 7.5. Water Use When Plantations Can Tap Groundwater.- 7.6. Other Australian Plantation Species.- 7.7. Plantation Water Issues Around the World.- 7.7.1. Eucalyptus Plantations.- 7.8. Balancing the Hydrologic Benefits of Plantations.- 7.9. References.- 8. Impacts of Burning on Catchment Hydrology and Management.- Abstract.- 8.1. Introduction.- 8.2. Case Study 1: Burning Croppers Creek in 2006.- 8.2.1. The dreaded "spike hydrograph".- Box 8.1: "Spike" Streamflows amd Human Issues.- 8.3. What Happens To Hydrology When a Catchment is Burnt.- 8.3.1. Soil Heating and "Brick" Formation.- 8.3.2. Water Repellency and Soil Infiltration.- 8.3.3. Runoff from Water Repellent Catchments.- 8.3.4. Erosion from Burnt Catchments.- 8.3.5. Water Quality Impacts from Burnt Catchments.- 8.3.6. The "Reseeder" Versus "Resprouter" Dichotomy.- 8.3.7. Twice-Burnt Areas.- 8.3.8. The Burnt Area Becomes Hotter.- 8.4. Post-Fire Hydrologic Rehabilitation.- 8.5. Case Study 2: The Macalister River Floods of 2007.- 8.6. Future Fire Hydrology Research in Australia.- 8.7. Conclusions.- 8.8. References.- 9. Water Quality and Nutrient Issues for Small Catchments.- Abstract.- 9.1. Why Measure Water Quality?.- 9.2. Planning a Water Quality "Campaign".- 9.2.1. The Pure Water of Mountain Streams Makes Measurement Difficult!.- 9.2.2. What Parameter Should I Measure?.- 9.2.3. Water Sampling and Statistical Sampling Issues.- 9.2.4. Technology to the Rescue?.- 9.2.5. Water Quality Computations.- 9.2.6. Water Quality Snapshots.- 9.3. Case Study 1: The Croppers Creek Water Quality Study.- 9.3.1. Effects of Clearing and Planting with Radiata Pine.- 9.3.2. Effects of Fertilizers.- 9.3.3. Effects of Herbicides.- 9.3.4. Long Term Effects on Water Quality.- 9.3.5. Use of Biota as a Measure of Water Quality.- 9.3.6. Did the Project Provide the Information Required?.- 9.4. Case Study 2: Water Quality Effects of Forest Roads.- 9.5. Protection of Water Quality in Forestry Management.- 9.6. The Future of Forest Water Quality Studies.- 9.7. References.- 10. Flooding Forests.- Abstract.- 10.1. Introduction.- 10.1.1. What is Meant by "Flooding Forests?".- 10.1.2. The Distinction between Riparian Forests and Flooding Forests.- 10.1.3. Ecological Adaptation for Survival Under Flooding.- 10.1.4. The Forest as a Hydrologic Refugium.- 10.1.5. Australian and International Examples of Flooding Forests.- 10.1.6. Threats to Flooding Forests.- 10.2. Case Study 1: River Red Gum Forests of the River Murray.- 10.3. Case Study 2: Swamp Cypress Forests of the Atchafalaya Basin.- 10.4. Quantification of the Flooding Regime.- 10.4.1. Sources of Flood Water.- 10.4.2. Annual Flood Frequency and Annual Flood Duration.- 10.4.3. Flood Seasonality.- 10.4.4. Methods for Quantification.- 10.4.5. Chaotic Hydrologic Systems.- 10.5. Negotiations with River Managers on Forest Issues.- 10.6. References.- 11. Catchment Management Issues World-Wide.- Abstract.- 11.1. Issues, Issues Galore in Catchment Management.- 11.2. The Basic Water Supply Catchment.- 11.3. World's Best Practice in Catchment Management.- 11.4. The Public and Attitudes on Catchment Management.- 11.4.1. Sydney's Giardia Crisis.- 11.5. "Open" or "Closed" Catchments?.- 11.5.1. What is a "Closed Catchment?".- 11.5.2. Advantages and Disadvantages of Closed Catchments.- 11.6. How Much Forested Catchment Do We Need to Supply a City?.- 11.7. The Concept of Payment for Catchment Services.- 11.8. Economics of Forested Catchment Issues.- 11.8.1. Without Water There is No Economy.- 11.8.2. Long Time Periods Bedevil Compound Interest.- 11.8.3. Valuation of Water and Other Products.- 11.8.4. Managing for Catchment Resilience.- 11.9. Dealing with Disasters to the Catchment's Forests.- 11.10. Catchment Protection Issues.- 11.10.1. Road Drainage Management.- 11.10.2. Buffer Strips and Stream Protection.- 11.11. Two Case Studies of Catchment Management.- 11.11.1. City of Ballarat (Australia).- 11.11.2. Quabbin Reservoir - United States.- 11.12. And Finally.- 11.13. References.- Appendix 1: Map of Australia Showing Locations Mentioned in the Text.- Index.

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