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Fundamentals of Conservation Biology 4e
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Table of Contents

List of Case Studies ix

Preface x

Acknowledgments xiii

About the Companion Website xiv

Part I Biodiversity and Its Importance 3 1 Conservation and Conservation Biology 4

What is Conservation? 4

A Brief History of Conservation 6

An Overview of Conservation Ethics 10

What is Conservation Biology? 13

A Brief History of Conservation Biology 15

Summary 19

2 What is Biodiversity? 21

Species, Genes, and Ecosystems 22

Structure and Function 23

Measuring Biodiversity 24

The Mismeasure of Biodiversity 26

Biodiversity and Spatial Scales 26

Biodiversity Verbs 30

The Related Concepts of "Integrity" and "Sustainability" 31

Summary 33

3 Species Diversity 35

What is a Species? 35

How Many Species Are There? 37

The Intrinsic Value of Species and Their Conservation Status 39

The Instrumental Values of Species 46

The Uniqueness Value of Species 62

Summary 65

4 Ecosystem Diversity 67

What is an Ecosystem? 67

The Values of Ecosystems 71

Ecosystem Diversity and Species Diversity 80

Ecosystems and Landscapes 85

Summary 88

5 Genetic Diversity 90

What is Genetic Diversity? 90

The Importance of Genetic Diversity 101

Processes That Diminish Genetic Diversity 110

Cultural Diversity 117

Summary 124

Part II Threats to Biodiversity 129 6 Mass Extinctions and Global Change 130

Extinction Episodes of the Past 131

Estimating the Current Rate of Extinction 135

The Recent History of Global Climate Change 139

How Did We Get to this Point? What is the Way Ahead? 150

Summary 152

7 Extinction Processes 154

Why Are Some Species More Vulnerable to Extinction than Others? 154

Populations 161

Population Viability Analysis 166

Summary 177

8 Ecosystem Degradation and Loss 179

Contamination 183

Roads, Dams, and Other Structures 189

Earth, Fire, Water 195

Deforestation 198

Desertification 204

Draining, Dredging, Damming, Etc. 206

Fragmentation 211

Summary 221

9 Overexploitation 223

The Long History of Overexploitation 223

Types of Exploitation 230

Consequences of Overexploitation 238

Some Final Perspectives on Exploitation 243

Summary 249

10 Invasive Exotics 251

How Do Species Move? 252

Impacts of Invasive Exotics 261

Success Rates 269

Irony 271

Summary 277

Part III Maintaining Biodiversity 279 11 Protecting Ecosystems 280

Reserve Selection 281

Reserve Design 290

Reserve Management 299

Summary 307

12 Sustaining Ecosystems 309

Forestry 310

Livestock Grazing 316

Fisheries 322

Ecological Management 325

Restoring Ecosystems 325

Summary 337

13 Managing Populations 338

Providing Resources 339

Controlling Threats 348

Direct Manipulations 364

Epilogue 376

Summary 378

14 Conservation near People 381

Cultivated Ecosystems 382

Built Ecosystems 391

Zoos and Gardens 396

The Ex Situ-In Situ Interface 405

Conservation of Domesticated Species 410

Summary 414

Part IV The Human Factors 419 15 Social Factors 420

Values Differ 420

Describing Values 431

Values Change 434

Summary 443

16 Economics 445

The Benefits 446

The Costs 456

The Distribution of Benefits and Costs 459

Problems and Solutions 461

Summary 481

17 Politics and Action 483

Setting Priorities for Action 483

Rights and Responsibilities 493

International Agencies 496

Governments 501

Nongovernmental Organizations 505

Corporations 508

Communities 510

Individuals 512

Summary 517

Epilogue 520

Glossary 522

Literature Cited 536

Species Index 631

Subject Index 643

About the Author

Malcolm L. Hunter, Jr. is the Libra Professor of Conservation Biology at the University of Maine and the former President of the Society for Conservation Biology.James P. Gibbs is Distinguished Professor of Conservation Biology at the State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry, and Conservation Scientist at the Galapagos Conservancy.Viorel D. Popescu is Assistant Professor of Conservation Biology at Ohio University, Athens and Research Associate at University of Bucharest's Center for Environmental Research, Romania.

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