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Fundamentals of Database Systems
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Table of Contents

Part 1: Introduction to Databases Chapter 1 Databases and Database Users 3 1.1 Introduction 4 1.2 An Example 6 1.3 Characteristics of the Database Approach 9 1.4 Actors on the Scene 14 1.5 Workers behind the Scene 16 1.6 Advantages of Using the DBMS Approach 17 1.7 A Brief History of Database Applications 23 1.8 When Not to Use a DBMS 26 1.9 Summary 27 Review Questions 27 Exercises 28 Selected Bibliography 28 Chapter 2 Database System Concepts and Architecture 29 2.1 Data Models, Schemas, and Instances 30 2.2 Three-Schema Architecture and Data Independence 33 2.3 Database Languages and Interfaces 36 2.4 The Database System Environment 40 2.5 Centralized and Client/Server Architectures for DBMSs 44 2.6 Classification of Database Management Systems 49 2.7 Summary 52 Review Questions 53 Exercises 54 Selected Bibliography 55 Part 2: Relational Data Model and SQL Chapter 3 The Relational Data Model and Relational Database Constraints 59 3.1 Relational Model Concepts 60 3.2 Relational Model Constraints and Relational Database Schemas 67 3.3 Update Operations, Transactions, and Dealing with Constraint Violations 75 3.4 Summary 79 Review Questions 80 Exercises 80 Selected Bibliography 85 Chapter 4 Basic SQL 87 4.1 SQL Data Definition and Data Types 89 4.2 Specifying Constraints in SQL 94 4.3 Basic Retrieval Queries in SQL 97 4.4 INSERT, DELETE, and UPDATE Statements in SQL 107 4.5 Additional Features of SQL 110 4.6 Summary 111 Review Questions 112 Exercises 112 Selected Bibliography 114 Chapter 5 More SQL: Complex Queries, Triggers, Views, and Schema Modification 115 5.1 More Complex SQL Retrieval Queries 115 5.2 Specifying Constraints as Assertions and Actions as Triggers 131 5.3 Views (Virtual Tables) in SQL 133 5.4 Schema Change Statements in SQL 137 5.5 Summary 139 Review Questions 141 Exercises 141 Selected Bibliography 143 Chapter 6 The Relational Algebra and Relational Calculus 145 6.1 Unary Relational Operations: SELECT and PROJECT 147 6.2 Relational Algebra Operations from Set Theory 152 6.3 Binary Relational Operations: JOIN and DIVISION 157 6.4 Additional Relational Operations 165 6.5 Examples of Queries in Relational Algebra 171 6.6 The Tuple Relational Calculus 174 6.7 The Domain Relational Calculus 183 6.8 Summary 185 Review Questions 186 Exercises 187 Laboratory Exercises 192 Selected Bibliography 194 Part 3: Conceptual Modeling and Database Design Chapter 7 Data Modeling Using the Entity-Relationship (ER) Model 199 7.1 Using High-Level Conceptual Data Models for Database Design 200 7.2 A Sample Database Application 202 7.3 Entity Types, Entity Sets, Attributes, and Keys 203 7.4 Relationship Types, Relationship Sets, Roles, and Structural Constraints 212 7.5 Weak Entity Types 219 7.6 Refining the ER Design for the COMPANY Database 220 7.7 ER Diagrams, Naming Conventions, and Design Issues 221 7.8 Example of Other Notation: UML Class Diagrams 226 7.9 Relationship Types of Degree Higher than Two 228 7.10 Summary 232 Review Questions 234 Exercises 234 Laboratory Exercises 241 Selected Bibliography 243 Chapter 8 The Enhanced Entity-Relationship (EER) Model 245 8.1 Subclasses, Superclasses, and Inheritance 246 8.2 Specialization and Generalization 248 8.3 Constraints and Characteristics of Specialization and Generalization Hierarchies 251 8.4 Modeling of UNION Types Using Categories 258 8.5 A Sample UNIVERSITY EER Schema, Design Choices, and Formal Definitions 260 8.6 Example of Other Notation: Representing Specialization and Generalization in UML Class Diagrams 265 8.7 Data Abstraction, Knowledge Representation, and Ontology Concepts 267 8.8 Summary 273 Review Questions 273 Exercises 274 Laboratory Exercises 281 Selected Bibliography 284 Chapter 9 Relational Database Design by ERand EER-to-Relational Mapping 285 9.1 Relational Database Design Using ER-to-Relational Mapping 286 9.2 Mapping EER Model Constructs to Relations 294 9.3 Summary 299 Review Questions 299 Exercises 299 Laboratory Exercises 301 Selected Bibliography 302 Chapter 10 Practical Database Design Methodology and Use of UML Diagrams 303 10.1 The Role of Information Systems in Organizations 304 10.2 The Database Design and Implementation Process 309 10.3 Use of UML Diagrams as an Aid to Database Design Specification 328 10.4 Rational Rose: A UML-Based Design Tool 337 10.5 Automated Database Design Tools 342 10.6 Summary 345 Review Questions 347 Selected Bibliography 348 Part 4: Object, Object-Relational, and XML Models Chapter 11 Object and Object-Relational Databases 353 11.1 Overview of Object Database Concepts 355 11.2 Object-Relational Features: Object Database Extensions to SQL 369 11.3 The ODMG Object Model and the Object Definition Language ODL 376 11.4 Object Database Conceptual Design 395 11.5 The Object Query Language OQL 398 11.6 Overview of the C++ Language Binding in the ODMG Standard 407 11.7 Summary 408 Review Questions 409 Exercises 411 Selected Bibliography 412 Chapter 12 XML: Extensible Markup Language 415 12.1 Structured, Semistructured, and Unstructured Data 416 12.2 XML Hierarchical (Tree) Data Model 420 12.3 XML Documents, DTD, and XML Schema 423 12.4 Storing and Extracting XML Documents from Databases 431 12.5 XML Languages 432 12.6 Extracting XML Documents from Relational Databases 436 12.7 Summary 442 Review Questions 442 Exercises 443 Selected Bibliography 443 Part 5: Database Programming Techniques Chapter 13 Introduction to SQL Programming Techniques 447 13.1 Database Programming: Techniques and Issues 448 13.2 Embedded SQL, Dynamic SQL, and SQLJ 451 13.3 Database Programming with Function Calls: SQL/CLI and JDBC 464 13.4 Database Stored Procedures and SQL/PSM 473 13.5 Comparing the Three Approaches 476 13.6 Summary 477 Review Questions 478 Exercises 478 Selected Bibliography 479 Chapter 14 Web Database Programming Using PHP 481 14.1 A Simple PHP Example 482 14.2 Overview of Basic Features of PHP 484 14.3 Overview of PHP Database Programming 491 14.4 Summary 496 Review Questions 496 Exercises 497 Selected Bibliography 497 Part 6: Database Normalization Theory Chapter 15 Basics of Functional Dependencies and Normalization for Relational Databases 501 15.1 Informal Design Guidelines for Relation Schemas 503 15.2 Functional Dependencies 513 15.3 Normal Forms Based on Primary Keys 516 15.4 General Definitions of Second and Third Normal Forms 525 15.5 Boyce-Codd Normal Form 529 15.6 Multivalued Dependency and Fourth Normal Form 531 15.7 Join Dependencies and Fifth Normal Form 534 15.8 Summary 535 Review Questions 536 Exercises 537 Laboratory Exercises 542 Selected Bibliography 542 Chapter 16 Relational Database Design Algorithms and Further Dependencies 543 16.1 Further Topics in Functional Dependencies: Inference Rules, Equivalence, and Minimal Cover 545 16.2 Properties of Relational Decompositions 551 16.3 Algorithms for Relational Database Schema Design 557 16.4 About Nulls, Dangling Tuples, and Alternative Relational Designs 563 16.5 Further Discussion of Multivalued Dependencies and 4NF 567 16.6 Other Dependencies and Normal Forms 571 16.7 Summary 575 Review Questions 576 Exercises 576 Laboratory Exercises 578 Selected Bibliography 579 Part 7: File Structures, Indexing, and Hashing Chapter 17 Disk Storage, Basic File Structures, and Hashing 583 17.1 Introduction 584 17.2 Secondary Storage Devices 587 17.3 Buffering of Blocks 593 17.4 Placing File Records on Disk 594 17.5 Operations on Files 599 17.6 Files of Unordered Records (Heap Files) 601 17.7 Files of Ordered Records (Sorted Files) 603 17.8 Hashing Techniques 606 17.9 Other Primary File Organizations 616 17.10 Parallelizing Disk Access Using RAID Technology 617 17.11 New Storage Systems 621 17.12 Summary 624 Review Questions 625 Exercises 626 Selected Bibliography 630 Chapter 18 Indexing Structures for Files 631 18.1 Types of Single-Level Ordered Indexes 632 18.2 Multilevel Indexes 643 18.3 Dynamic Multilevel Indexes Using B-Trees and B+-Trees 646 18.4 Indexes on Multiple Keys 660 18.5 Other Types of Indexes 663 18.6 Some General Issues Concerning Indexing 668 18.7 Summary 670 Review Questions 671 Exercises 672 Selected Bibliography 674 Part 8: Query Processing, Optimization, and Database Tuning Chapter 19 Algorithms for Query Processing and Optimization 679 19.1 Translating SQL Queries into Relational Algebra 681 19.2 Algorithms for External Sorting 682 19.3 Algorithms for SELECT and JOIN Operations 685 19.4 Algorithms for PROJECT and Set Operations 696 19.5 Implementing Aggregate Operations and OUTER JOINs 698 19.6 Combining Operations Using Pipelining 700 19.7 Using Heuristics in Query Optimization 700 19.8 Using Selectivity and Cost Estimates in Query Optimization 710 19.9 Overview of Query Optimization in Oracle 721 19.10 Semantic Query Optimization 722 19.11 Summary 723 Review Questions 723 Exercises 724 Selected Bibliography 725 Chapter 20 Physical Database Design and Tuning 727 20.1 Physical Database Design in Relational Databases 727 20.2 An Overview of Database Tuning in Relational Systems 733 20.3 Summary 739 Review Questions 739 Selected Bibliography 740 Part 9: Transaction Processing, Concurrency Control, and Recovery Chapter 21 Introduction to Transaction Processing Concepts and Theory 743 21.1 Introduction to Transaction Processing 744 21.2 Transaction and System Concepts 751 21.3 Desirable Properties of Transactions 754 21.4 Characterizing Schedules Based on Recoverability 755 21.5 Characterizing Schedules Based on Serializability 759 21.6 Transaction Support in SQL 770 21.7 Summary 772 Review Questions 772 Exercises 773 Selected Bibliography 775 Chapter 22 Concurrency Control Techniques 777 22.1 Two-Phase Locking Techniques for Concurrency Control 778 22.2 Concurrency Control Based on Timestamp Ordering 788 22.3 Multiversion Concurrency Control Techniques 791 22.4 Validation (Optimistic) Concurrency Control Techniques 794 22.5 Granularity of Data Items and Multiple Granularity Locking 795 22.6 Using Locks for Concurrency Control in Indexes 798 22.7 Other Concurrency Control Issues 800 22.8 Summary 802 Review Questions 803 Exercises 804 Selected Bibliography 804 Chapter 23 Database Recovery Techniques 807 23.1 Recovery Concepts 808 23.2 NO-UNDO/REDO Recovery Based on Deferred Update 815 23.3 Recovery Techniques Based on Immediate Update 817 23.4 Shadow Paging 820 23.5 The ARIES Recovery Algorithm 821 23.6 Recovery in Multidatabase Systems 825 23.7 Database Backup and Recovery from Catastrophic Failures 826 23.8 Summary 827 Review Questions 828 Exercises 829 Selected Bibliography 832 Part 10: Additional Database Topics: Security and Distribution Chapter 24 Database Security 835 24.1 Introduction to Database Security Issues 836 24.2 Discretionary Access Control Based on Granting and Revoking Privileges 842 24.3 Mandatory Access Control and Role-Based Access Control for Multilevel Security 847 24.4 SQL Injection 855 24.5 Introduction to Statistical Database Security 859 24.6 Introduction to Flow Control 860 24.7 Encryption and Public Key Infrastructures 862 24.8 Privacy Issues and Preservation 866 24.9 Challenges of Database Security 867 24.10 Oracle Label-Based Security 868 24.11 Summary 870 Review Questions 872 Exercises 873 Selected Bibliography 874 Chapter 25 Distributed Databases 877 25.1 Distributed Database Concepts 878 25.2 Types of Distributed Database Systems 883 25.3 Distributed Database Architectures 887 25.4 Data Fragmentation, Replication, and Allocation Techniques for Distributed Database Design 894 25.5 Query Processing and Optimization in Distributed Databases 901 25.6 Overview of Transaction Management in Distributed Databases 907 25.7 Overview of Concurrency Control and Recovery in Distributed Databases 909 25.8 Distributed Catalog Management 913 25.9 Current Trends in Distributed Databases 914 25.10 Distributed Databases in Oracle 915 25.11 Summary 919 Review Questions 921 Exercises 922 Selected Bibliography 924 Part 11: Advanced Database Models, Systems, and Applications Chapter 26 Enhanced Data Models for Advanced Applications 931 26.1 Active Database Concepts and Triggers 933 26.2 Temporal Database Concepts 943 26.3 Spatial Database Concepts 957 26.4 Multimedia Database Concepts 965 26.5 Introduction to Deductive Databases 970 26.6 Summary 983 Review Questions 985 Exercises 986 Selected Bibliography 989 Chapter 27 Introduction to Information Retrieval and Web Search 993 27.1 Information Retrieval (IR) Concepts 994 27.2 Retrieval Models 1001 27.3 Types of Queries in IR Systems 1007 27.4 Text Preprocessing 1009 27.5 Inverted Indexing 1012 27.6 Evaluation Measures of Search Relevance 1014 27.7 Web Search and Analysis 1018 27.8 Trends in Information Retrieval 1028 27.9 Summary 1030 Review Questions 1031 Selected Bibliography 1033 Chapter 28 Overview of Data Warehousing and OLAP 1067 28.1 Introduction, Definitions, and Terminology 1067 28.2 Characteristics of Data Warehouses 1069 28.3 Data Modeling for Data Warehouses 1070 28.4 Building a Data Warehouse 1075 28.5 Typical Functionality of a Data Warehouse 1078 28.6 Data Warehouse versus Views 1079 28.7 Difficulties of Implementing Data Warehouses 1080 28.8 Summary 1081 Review Questions 1081 Selected Bibliography 1082 Appendix A Alternative Diagrammatic Notations for ER Models 1083 Appendix B Parameters of Disks 1087 Appendix C Overview of the QBE Language 1091 C.1 Basic Retrievals in QBE 1091 C.2 Grouping, Aggregation, and Database Modification in QBE 1095 Appendix D Overview of the Hierarchical Data Model (located on the Companion Website at http://www.pearsonhighered.com/elmasri) Appendix E Overview of the Network Data Model (located on the Companion Website at http://www.pearsonhighered.com/elmasri) Selected Bibliography 1099 Index 1133 *An access code for the Companion Website is included with each new textbook purchase of Fundamentals of Database Systems, 6/e

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