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Fundamentals of Geotechnical Engineering


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1. GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING - FROM THE BEGINNING. Geotechnical Engineering Prior to the 18th Century. Pre-classical Period of Soil Mechanics (1700-1776). Classical Soil Mechanics - Phase I (1776-1856). Classical Soil Mechanics - Phase II (1856-1910). Modern Soil Mechanics (1910-1927). Geotechnical Engineering after 1927. End of an Era. 2. SOIL DEPOSITS - ORIGIN, GRAIN-SIZE, AND SHAPE. Rock Cycle and the Origin of Soil. Soil Deposits--General. Residual Soil. Gravity Transported Soil. Alluvial Deposits. Lacustrine Deposits. Glacial Deposits. Aeolian Soil Deposits. Organic Soil. Soil-Grain Size. Clay Minerals. Specific Gravity (Gs). Mechanical Analysis of Soil. Sieve Analysis. Hydrometer Analysis. Effective Size, Uniformity Coefficient, and Coefficient of Gradation. Grain Shape. 3. WEIGHT-VOLUME RELATIONSHIPS AND PLASTICITY. Weight-Volume Relationships. Relationships among Unit Weight, Void Ratio, Moisture Content, and Specific Gravity. Relationships among Unit Weight, Porosity, and Moisture Content. Various Unit Weight Relationships. Relative Density. Consistency of Soil. Activity. Liquidity Index. Plasticity Chart. 4. SOIL CLASSIFICATION. AASHTO Soil Classification System. Unified Classification System (USCS), Visual Identification of Soils. 5. SOIL COMPACTION. Compaction - General Principles. Standard Proctor Test. Factors Affecting Compaction. Modified Proctor Test. Empirical Relationships. Field Compaction. Specifications for Field Compaction. Determination of Field Unit Weight after Compaction. Effect of Compaction on Cohesive Soil Properties. Other Ground Improvement Methods. 6. HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY. Bernoulli's Equation. Darcy's Law. Hydraulic Conductivity. Laboratory Determination of Hydraulic Conductivity. Empirical Relations for Hydraulic Conductivity. Equivalent Hydraulic Conductivity in Stratified Soil. Permeability Test in the Field by Pumping from Wells. 7. SEEPAGE. Laplace's Equation of Continuity. Flow Nets. Seepage Calculation from a Flow Net. Flow Nets in Anisotropic Soil. 8. STRESSES IN A SOIL MASS. EFFECTIVE STRESS CONCEPT. Stresses in Saturated Soil without Seepage. Stresses in Saturated Soil with Seepage. Seepage Force. Heaving in Soil Due to Flow around Sheet Piles. VERTICAL STRESS INCREASE DUE TO VARIOUS TYPES OF LOADING. Stress Caused by a Point Load. Vertical Stress Caused by a Line Load. Vertical Stress Below a Uniformly Loaded Circular Area. Vertical Stress Caused by a Rectangularly Loaded Area. 9. CONSOLIDATION. Fundamentals of Consolidation. One-Dimensional Laboratory Consolidation Test. Void Ratio-Pressure Plots. Normally Consolidated and Overconsolidated Clays. Effect of Disturbance on Void Ratio-Pressure Relationship. Calculation of Settlement from One-Dimensional Primary Consolidation. Compression Index (Cc) and Swell Index (Cs). Settlement from Secondary Consolidation. Time Rate of Consolidation. Coefficient of Consolidation. Calculation of Primary Consolidation Settlement under a Foundation. Skempton-Bjerrum Modification for Consolidation Settlement. Effects of Initial Excess Pore Pressure Distribution of U-Tv Relationship. Construction Time Correction of Consolidation Settlement. 10. SHEAR STRENGTH OF SOIL. Mohr-Coulomb Failure Criteria. Inclination of the Plane of Failure Caused by Shear. LABORATORY DETERMINATION OF SHEAR STRENGTH PARAMETERS. Direct Shear Test. Triaxial Shear Test. Consolidated-Drained Test. Consolidated-Undrained Test. Unconsolidated-Undrained Test. Unconfined Compression Test on Saturated Clay. Selection of Shear Strength Parameters. Sensitivity and Thixotropy of Clay. Anisotropy in Undrained Shear Strength. 11. GROUND IMPROVEMENT. CHEMICAL STABILIZATION. Lime Stabilization. Cement Stabilization. Fly-Ash Stabilization. MECHANICAL STABILIZATION. Vibroflotation. Dynamic Compaction. Blasting. Precompression. Sand Drains. 12. SUBSURFACE EXPLORATION. Subsurface Exploration Program. Exploratory Borings in the Field. Procedures for Sampling Soil. Split-Spoon Sampling and Standard Penetration Test. Sampling with Thin Wall Tube. Observation of Water Levels. Vane Shear Test. Cone Penetration Test. Pressuremeter Test (PMT). Dilatometer Test. Coring of Rocks. Preparation of Boring Logs. Geophysical Exploration. Soil Exploration Report. Field Instrumentation. 13. SLOPE STABILITY. Factor of Safety. Stability of Infinite Slopes. Finite Slopes. Analysis of Finite Slope with Circularly Cylindrical Failure Surface--General. Mass Procedure of Stability Analysis (Circularly Cylindrical Failure Surface). Method of Slices. Bishop's Simplified Method of Slices. Analysis of Simple Slopes with Steady-State Seepage. Mass Procedure for Stability of Clay Slopes with Earthquake Forces. 14. LATERAL EARTH PRESSURE. Earth Pressure at Rest. Rankine's Theory of Active and Passive Earth Pressures. Diagrams for Lateral Earth Pressure Distribution against Retaining Walls. Rankine's Active Pressure with Sloping Granular Backfill. Coulomb's Earth Pressure Theory-- Retaining Walls with Friction. Passive Pressure Assuming Curved Failure Surface in Soil. 15. RETAINING WALLS, BRACED CUTS, AND SHEET PILE WALLS. RETAINING WALLS. Retaining Walls--General. Proportioning Retaining Walls. Application of Lateral Earth Pressure Theories to Design. Check for Overturning. Check for Sliding along the Base. Check for Bearing Capacity Failure MECHANICALLY STABILIZED EARTH RETAINING WALLS. Mechanically Stabilized Earth. General Design Considerations. Retaining Walls with Metallic Strip Reinforcement. Step-by-Step Design Procedure Using Metallic Strip Reinforcement. Retaining Walls with Geotextile Reinforcement. Retaining Walls with Geogrid Reinforcement. BRACED CUTS. Braced Cuts--General. Lateral Earth Pressure in Braced Cuts. Soil Parameters for Cuts in Layered Soil. Design of Various Components of a Braced Cut. Heave of the Bottom of a Cut in Clay. Lateral Yielding of Sheet Piles and Ground Settlement. SHEET PILE WALLS. Cantilever Sheet Pile Wall in Granular Soils (c' = 0). Cantilever Sheet Pile Walls in Cohesive Soils. Anchored Sheet Pile Wall. Deadman Anchor - A Simplified Approach. 16. SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS - BEARING CAPACITY. Ultimate Bearing Capacity of Shallow Foundations--General Concepts. Terzaghi's Ultimate Bearing Capacity Theory. Modifications to Terzaghi's Bearing Capacity Equation. Modification of Bearing Capacity Equations for Water Table. The Factor of Safety. Eccentrically Loaded Foundations. Reduction Factor Method for Eccentrically Loaded Strip Foundations on Granular Soil. Shallow Foundation under Eccentrically Inclined Load. Foundations with Two-Way Eccentricity. Ultimate Bearing Capacity with Earthquake Condition. Mat Foundations--Common Types. Bearing Capacity for Mat Foundations. Compensated Foundations. 17. SETTLEMENT OF SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS. Elastic Settlement of Foundations on Saturated Clay Soils (s = 0.5). Elastic Settlement Based on Theory of Elasticity. Range of Material Parameters for Computing Elastic Settlement. Improved Method for Settlement Calculation in Granular Soil. Settlement of Sandy Soil: Use of Strain Influence Factor. Allowable Bearing Pressure for Spread Footings in Sand Based on Settlement Consideration. Allowable Bearing Pressure for Mat Foundation in Sand. Effects of Water Table Rise on Elastic Settlement in Granular Soils. 18. PILE FOUNDATIONS. Need for Pile Foundations. Types of Piles and Their Structural Characteristics. Estimation of Pile Length. Installation of Piles. Load Transfer Mechanism. Equations for Estimation of Pile Capacity. Load Carrying Capacity of Pile Point, Qp. Frictional Resistance, Qs. Allowable Pile Capacity. Load-Carrying Capacity of Pile Point Resting on Rock. Elastic Settlement of Piles. Pile Load Tests. Pile-Driving Formulas. Negative Skin Friction. Group Piles - Efficiency. Elastic Settlement of Group Piles. Consolidation Settlement of Group Piles. 19. DRILLED SHAFTS. Types of Drilled Shafts. Construction Procedures. Estimation of Load-Bearing Capacity. Drilled Shafts in Sand-Net Ultimate Load. Drilled Shafts in Clay-Net Ultimate Load. Settlement of Drilled Shafts at Working Load. Load-Bearing Capacity Based on Settlement. 20. LOAD AND RESISTANCE FACTOR DESIGN (LRFD). Design Philosophy. Allowable Stress Design (ASD). Limit State Design (LSD) and Partial Safety Factors. APPENDIX A: GEOSYNTHETICS.

About the Author

Dr. Braja Das is Dean Emeritus of the College of Engineering and Computer Science at California State University, Sacramento. He received his M.S. in civil engineering from the University of Iowa and his Ph.D. in geotechnical engineering from the University of Wisconsin. He is the author of a number of geotechnical engineering texts and reference books and has written more than 250 technical papers in the area of geotechnical engineering. Dr. Das' primary areas of research include shallow foundations, earth anchors and geosynthetics. He is a fellow and life member of the American Society of Civil Engineers, life member of the American Society for Engineering Education and an emeritus member of the Stabilization of Geomaterials and Recycled Materials of the Transportation Research Board of the National Research Council. He has received numerous awards for teaching excellence, including the AMOCO Foundation Award, the AT&T Award for Teaching Excellence from the American Society for Engineering Education, the Ralph Teetor Award from the Society of Automotive Engineers and the Distinguished Achievement Award for Teaching Excellence from the University of Texas at El Paso. Dr. Sivakugan received his Bachelor's degree in Civil Engineering from University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka, with First Class Honors. He earned his MSCE and Ph.D. from Purdue University, West Lafayette, U.S.A. Dr. Sivakugan's writings include eight books, 140 refereed international journal papers, 100 refereed international conference papers, and more than 100 consulting reports. As a registered professional engineer of Queensland and a chartered professional engineer, Dr. Sivakugan does substantial consulting work for the geotechnical and mining industry in Australia and overseas, including the World Bank. He is a Fellow of the American Society of Civil Engineers and Engineers Australia. He has supervised 14 Ph.D. students to completion at James Cook University, Queensland, Australia, where he was the Head of Civil Engineering from 2003 to 2014. He is an Associate Editor for three international journals and serves in the editorial boards of the Canadian Geotechnical Journal and the Indian Geotechnical Journal.


The book is very thorough and we use it for more than one course. It is very easy to follow and to understand. The book has enough examples to cover almost all the concepts. It is well organized and a student can move from one chapter to another without any confusion. The theoretical concepts are well explained. Student prefer this book over other text book because its simplicity to follow the logic of each concept. In general the illustrations in this book are easier to follow.
The presentation is quite good. Looking at other textbooks on the same topic I find that this book reads very well. Maybe too well, many students read ahead of the lecture and they like the style and the clarification of concepts. The examples in the book are solved in a detailed, step-by-step and logical manner. It reads very well and presents topics in a clear manner supported by quality diagrams.
The topics covered are complete. I like the additional resource materials for students and instructors. The example problems are good. The textbook is well organized and complete. It is comprehensive, it includes new information.

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