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Geographic Information Systems and Science 4E
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Table of Contents

FOREWORD x DEDICATION xi PREFACE xii LIST OF ACRONYMS xiv Introduction 1 Geographic Information: Science, Systems, and Society 1 1.1 Introduction: What Are GI Science and Systems, and Why Do They Matter? 1 1.2 Data, Information, Evidence, Knowledge, and Wisdom 9 1.3 GI Science and Systems 11 1.4 The Technology of Problem Solving 14 1.5 The Disciplinary Setting of GI Science and Systems (GISS) 16 1.6 GI Science and Spatial Thinking 30 1.7 GI Systems and Science in Society 31 Questions for Further Study 32 Further Reading 32 1 Principles 2 The Nature of Geographic Data 33 2.1 Introduction 33 2.2 The Fundamental Problem 34 2.3 Spatial Autocorrelation and Scale 37 2.4 Spatial Sampling 39 2.5 Sampling and VGI 42 2.6 Distance Decay 43 2.7 Measuring Distance Effects as Spatial Autocorrelation 48 2.8 Taming Geographic Monsters 51 2.9 Induction and Deduction and How It All Comes Together 53 Questions for Further Study 54 Further Reading 54 3 Representing Geography 55 3.1 Introduction 55 3.2 Digital Representation 57 3.3 Representation of What and for Whom? 58 3.4 The Fundamental Problem 61 3.5 Discrete Objects and Continuous Fields 62 3.6 Rasters and Vectors 66 3.7 The Paper Map 69 3.8 Generalization 71 3.9 Conclusion 76 Questions for Further Study 76 Further Reading 76 4 Georeferencing 77 4.1 Introduction 77 4.2 Place-Names and Points of Interest 80 4.3 Postal Addresses and Postal Codes 82 4.4 IP Addresses 84 4.5 Linear Referencing Systems 84 4.6 Cadasters and the U.S. Public Land Survey System 85 4.7 Measuring the Earth: Latitude and Longitude 86 4.8 Projections and Coordinates 88 4.9 Measuring Latitude, Longitude, and Elevation: GPS 94 4.10 Converting Georeferences 95 4.11 Geotagging and Mashups 96 4.12 Georegistration 96 4.13 Summary 98 Questions for Further Study 98 Further Reading 98 5 Uncertainty 99 5.1 Introduction 99 5.2 U1: Uncertainty in the Conception of Geographic Phenomena 101 5.3 U2: Further Uncertainty in the Representation of Geographic Phenomena 111 5.4 U3: Further Uncertainty in the Analysis of Geographic Phenomena 117 5.5 Consolidation 126 Questions for Further Study 127 Further Reading 127 2 Techniques 6 GI System Software 128 6.1 Introduction 128 6.2 The Evolution of GI System Software 129 6.3 Architecture of GI System Software 131 6.4 Building GI Software Systems 136 6.5 GI Software Vendors 137 6.6 Types of GI Systems 140 6.7 Conclusion 150 Questions for Further Study 151 Further Reading 151 7 Geographic Data Modeling 152 7.1 Introduction 152 7.2 GI Data Models 154 7.3 Example of a Water-Facility Object Data Model 168 7.4 Geographic Data Modeling in Practice 170 Questions for Further Study 172 Further Reading 172 8 Data Collection 173 8.1 Introduction 173 8.2 Primary Geographic Data Capture 175 8.3 Secondary Geographic Data Capture 181 8.4 Obtaining Data from External Sources (Data Transfer) 187 8.5 Capturing Attribute Data 190 8.6 Citizen-Centric Web-Based Data Collection 190 8.7 Managing a Data Collection Project 191 Questions for Further Study 193 Further Reading 193 9 Creating and Maintaining Geographic Databases 194 9.1 Introduction 194 9.2 Database Management Systems 195 9.3 Storing Data in DBMS Tables 198 9.4 SQL 201 9.5 Geographic Database Types and Functions 202 9.6 Geographic Database Design 205 9.7 Structuring Geographic Information 206 9.8 Editing and Data Maintenance 212 9.9 Multiuser Editing of Continuous Databases 213 9.10 Conclusion 214 Questions for Further Study 216 Further Reading 216 10 The GeoWeb 217 10.1 Introduction 217 10.2 Distributing the Data 222 10.3 The Mobile User 227 10.4 Distributing the Software: GI Services 233 10.5 Prospects 235 Questions for Further Study 236 Further Reading 236 3 Analysis 11 Cartography and Map Production 237 11.1 Introduction 237 11.2 Maps and Cartography 241 11.3 Principles of Map Design 246 11.4 Map Series 257 11.5 Applications 261 11.6 Conclusion 265 Questions for Further Study 265 Further Reading 265 12 Geovisualization 266 12.1 Introduction: Uses, Users, Messages, and Media 266 12.2 Geovisualization, Spatial Query, and User Interaction 268 12.3 Geovisualization and Transformation 274 12.4 Participation, Interaction, Augmentation, and Dynamic Representation 280 12.5 Consolidation 288 Questions for Further Study 289 Further Reading 289 13 Spatial Data Analysis 290 13.1 Introduction: What Is Spatial Analysis? 290 13.2 Analysis Based on Location 295 13.3 Analysis Based on Distance 304 13.4 Conclusion 317 Questions for Further Study 318 Further Reading 318 14 Spatial Analysis and Inference 319 14.1 The Purpose of Area-Based Analyses 319 14.2 Centrality 321 14.3 Analysis of Surfaces 324 14.4 Design 329 14.5 Hypothesis Testing 334 14.6 Conclusion 337 Questions for Further Study 338 Further Reading 338 15 Spatial Modeling with GI Systems 339 15.1 Introduction 339 15.2 Types of Models 343 15.3 Technology for Modeling 351 15.4 Multicriteria Methods 352 15.5 Accuracy and Validity: Testing the Model 354 15.6 Conclusion 356 Questions for Further Study 357 Further Reading 357 4 Policy, Management, and Action 16 Managing GI Systems 358 16.1 Introduction 359 16.2 Managing Risk 359 16.3 The Case for the GI System: ROI 360 16.4 The Process of Developing a Sustainable GI System 366 16.5 Sustaining a GI System-The People and Their Competences 378 16.6 Conclusions 380 Questions for Further Study 380 Further Reading 380 17 Information and Decision Making 381 17.1 Why We Need Information 381 17.2 Information as Infrastructure 386 17.3 Different Forms of GI 391 17.4 Open Data and Open Government 404 17.5 Example of an Information Infrastructure: The Military 406 17.6 Conclusions 409 Questions for Further Study 410 Further Reading 410 18 Navigating the Risks 411 18.1 Clashes Between Scientists and the Judiciary 412 18.2 Business Models for GI-Related Enterprises 412 18.3 Legal and Regulatory Constraints 414 18.4 Privacy and GI Systems 421 18.5 Public Trust, Ethics, and Coping with the Media 424 18.6 Partnerships, Up-Scaling Activities, and Risk Mitigation 426 18.7 Coping with Spatial Stupidity 432 18.8 Conclusions 433 Questions for Further Study 434 Further Reading 434 19 Epilog: GISS in the Service of Humanity 435 19.1 GISS, the Active Citizen, and Citizen Scientists 435 19.2 Context: Our Differentiated World 437 19.3 Context: Our Interdependent World 440 19.4 The Process 441 19.5 The Grand Challenges 443 19.6 Grand Challenges Whose Effects We Can Help to Ameliorate 445 19.7 Conclusions 459 Questions For Further Study 460 Further Reading 460 INDEX 461

About the Author

Professor?Paul Longley, Department of Geography, University College London, UK. Professor Mike Goodchild, Department of Geography, University of California Santa Barbara, USA. Professor David Maguire, ESRI, Redlands, USA. Professor David Rhind, Vice Chancellor and Principle, City University,?London, UK.

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