Preface to the Second Edition xiii Chapter 1. Introduction to the Global Environment: The Water and Energy Cycles and Atmospheric and Oceanic Circulation 1 Introduction 1 The Global Water Cycle 2 Major Water Masses 2 Fluxes between Reservoirs 2 Geographic Variations in Precipitation and Evaporation 4 The Energy Cycle 7 Introduction 7 Radiation and Energy Balance 7 Variations in Solar Radiation: The Atmospheric and Oceanic Heat Engine 11 Circulation of the Atmosphere 14 Oceanic Circulation 16 Introduction 16 Wind-Driven (Shallow) Circulation 17 Coastal Upwelling 19 Thermohaline (Deep) Circulation 19 Chapter 2. Air Chemistry: The Greenhouse Effect and the Ozone Hole 24 Atmospheric Gases 24 Carbon Dioxide 26 Present and Future CO2 and the Surficial Carbon Cycle 26 Past CO2 Levels 36 Other Greenhouse Gases: Methane, Nitrous Oxide 39 Other Greenhouse Gases: Halogens and Tropospheric Ozone 46 Radiative Forcing by Anthropogenic Factors 47 Climatic Effects of Radiative Forcing: Climate Sensitivity, Global Warming, and Hydrologic Changes 48 Observed Changes in Temperature and Atmospheric Circulation 50 Observed Changes in the Water Cycle: Water Vapor, Precipitation, Streamflow, and Storms 52 Observed Changes in Ice, Sea Level and the Oceans 54 Predictions for Future Climate Change 57 Aerosols 59 Aerosol Cloud Effects 60 Types of Aerosols 61 Gaseous Emissions 62 Sulfate Aerosols 62 Black Carbon Aerosols 63 Organic Carbon Aerosols 65 Biomass Burning Aerosols 65 Nitrate Aerosols 65 Mineral Dust Aerosols 66 Sea-Salt Aerosols 67 Surface Dimming by Aerosols 68 Aerosols and the Hydrologic Cycle 68 Black Carbon Aerosols and Snow Cover 69 Ozone and the Ozone Hole 69 Stratospheric Ozone: The Ozone Hole 70 Tropospheric Ozone: Air Pollution 76 Chapter 3. Air Chemistry: Rainwater, Acid Rain, and the Atmospheric Cycles of Sulfur and Nitrogen 79 Introduction 79 Formation of Rain (and Snow) 80 Water Vapor in the Atmosphere 80 Condensation 83 Sublimation 84 Rain (and Snow) Formation 84 Air Motion in Cloud Formation 85 Chemical Composition of Rainwater: General Characteristics 85 Cl-, Na+, Mg++, Ca++ and K+ in Rain 92 Gases and Rain 102 Sulfate in Rain: The Atmospheric Sulfur Cycle 102 Sea-Salt Sulfate 103 U.S. Sulfur Emissions 104 Conversion of Sulfur Dioxide to Sulfate in Rain 107 Biogenic Reduced Sulfur 108 Other Sulfur Sources: Biomass Burning, Volcanism, and Soil Dust 109 Sulfur Deposition on Land 110 Anthropogenic Sulfur Deposition in the United States 111 Atmospheric Sulfur Cycle: Human Perturbation 113 Radiative Forcing from Sulfate Aerosol 115 The Atmospheric Nitrogen Cycle and Nitrogen in Rain 116 N2, Nitrogen Fixation, Denitrification, and Total Nitrogen Fluxes 116 Nitrogen Cycle: Anthropogenic Changes and Climate 120 Atmospheric Nox and Nitrate in Rain 120 Nitrate in Rain: Anthropogenic Sources 123 Nitrate Deposition in Rain and the Nitrate-Nitrogen Cycle 126 Ammonium in Rain: Atmospheric Ammonium-Nitrogen Cycle 130 Ammonium in Rain 133 Reactive N Deposition 135 Acid Rain 137 The pH of Natural Rainwater 138 Acid Rain from Pollution 140 Acid Rain in Europe 141 Acid Rain in the United States from 1955 to 1985 142 Acid Deposition Changes in the United States from 1980 to 2007 144 Acid Rain in Other Parts of the World 145 Distinguishing Naturally Acid Rain from That Due to Pollution 146 Effects of Acid Rain 149 Chapter 4. Chemical Weathering: Minerals, Plants, and Water Chemistry 151 Introduction 151 Biogeochemical Cycling in Forests 153 Soil Water and Microorganisms: Acid Production 158 Chemical Weathering 159 Minerals Involved in Weathering 159 Silicate Weathering Reactions: Secondary Mineral Formation 162 Mechanism of Silicate Dissolution 168 Rate of Silicate Weathering 171 Silicate Weathering: Soil Formation 176 Carbonate Weathering 178 Sulfide Weathering 179 Groundwaters and Weathering 181 Garrels's Model for the Composition of Groundwaters from Igneous rocks 182 Chapter 5. Rivers 185 Introduction 185 Components of River Water 185 River Runoff 186 Major World Rivers 188 Suspended Matter in Rivers 190 Amount of Suspended Matter 190 Human Influence 195 Chemical Composition of Suspended Matter 198 Chemical Composition of Rivers 201 World Average River Water 201 Chemical Classification of Rivers 202 Relief and River-Water Composition 212 Major Dissolved Components of River Water 213 Chloride and Cyclic Salt 213 Sodium 216 Potassium 217 Calcium and Magnesium 219 Bicarbonate (HCO3) 220 Silica 222 Sulfate 227 Sulfate Pollution and Acidic Rivers 229 Organic Matter in Rivers: Organic Acidity 232 Organic Acid Rivers 236 Chemical and Total Denudation of the Continents as Deduced from River-Water Composition 237 Nutrients in River Water 241 Nitrogen in Rivers: The Terrestrial Nitrogen Cycle 242 Reactive Nitrogen Deposition and River Transport in the United States 249 Phosphorus In Rivers: The Terrestrial Phosphorus Cycle 250 Chapter 6. Lakes 257 Physical Processes in Lakes 257 Water Balance 257 Thermal Regimes and Lake Classification 259 Lake Models 264 Biological Processes in Lakes as They Affect Water Composition 269 Photosynthesis, Respiration, and Biological Cycling 269 Eutrophication 272 Limiting Nutrients 275 Sources of Phosphorus in Lakes 279 Pollutive Changes in Major Lakes: Potential Loading 285 Acid Lakes 287 Changes in Acid Lakes in the Northeastern and Upper Midwestern United States 291 Changes in Acid Lakes in Europe 292 Naturally Acid Lakes 293 Chemical Composition of Acid Lakes 294 Saline and Alkaline Lakes 298 Chapter 7. Marginal Marine Environments: Estuaries 303 Introduction 303 Estuaries: Circulation and Classification 303 The Black Sea 307 Estuarine Chemistry: Conservative vs Nonconservative Mixing 308 Estuarine Chemical Processes 311 Inorganic (Nonbiogenic) Removal in Estuaries 311 Biogenic Nutrients in Estuaries 314 Limiting Nutrients: Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Silica 317 Eutrophication from Nutrient Pollution of Estuaries 321 Coastal Hypoxia from Nutrient Loading and Eutrophication 324 Harmful Algal Blooms and Eutrophication 329 Suspended Sediment Deposition in Marginal Marine Environments 330 Antiestuaries and Evaporite Deposition 335 Chapter 8. The Oceans 339 Introduction 339 Chemical Composition of Seawater 339 pH and the Human Acidification of the Oceans 343 Modeling Seawater Composition 344 Sillen's Equilibrium Model 344 Oceanic Box Models 345 Continuum Models 347 Energy Sources for Chemical Reactions 347 Major Processes of Seawater Modification 348 Biological Processes 349 Volcanic-Seawater Reaction 360 Interaction with Detrital Solids 365 Chemical Budgets for Individual Elements 369 Summary of Processes 369 Chloride 370 Sodium 371 Sulfur 372 Magnesium 374 Potassium 375 Calcium 376 Bicarbonate 381 Silica 382 Phosphorus 384 Nitrogen 386 References 389 Index 435
Elizabeth Kay Berner is a lecturer in geology at the University of Connecticut and research affiliate in the Department of Geology and Geophysics at Yale University. Robert A. Berner is the Alan M. Bateman Professor of Geology and Geophysics Emeritus at Yale University.
"This second edition of a useful book by distinguished authors Elizabeth Berner and Robert Berner surveys the status of the terrestrial environment from the standpoint of cycles of material and energy... Global Environment can also serve as a reliable, detailed introduction to environmental science for master's-level practitioners in the field. Well edited with an admirable consistency of writing style and viewpoint."--Choice