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Handbook of Food Powders


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Table of Contents

Contributor contact details Woodhead Publishing Series in Electronic and Optical Materials Preface Chapter 1: Introduction to food powders Abstract : 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Crystalline and amorphous microstructure of powders 1.3 Cohesive forces in powders 1.4 Adhesive forces and surface energetics 1.5 Stickiness of powders during their formation and handling 1.6 Surface structure of powders 1.7 Packing property of powders 1.8 Fluidity of powders 1.9 Compressibility of powders 1.10 Mixing property of powders 1.11 Segregation of powder particles 1.12 Dust formation and explosion risk 1.13 Hydration property of powders 1.14 Conclusion Part I: Processing and handling of technologies Chapter 2: Spray drying for food powder production Abstract: 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Principles of spray drying 2.3 Spray drying techniques and configurations 2.4 Applications of spray drying in the production of food powder 2.5 Conclusion and future trends 2.6 Sources of further information and advice Chapter 3: Freeze drying for food powder production Abstract: 3.1 Introduction 3.2 The freeze drying process 3.3 Comparison to other drying methods 3.4 Freeze drying and powder production 3.5 Applications of freeze drying in the production of food powders 3.6 Conclusions and future trends Chapter 4: Roller and drum drying for food powder production Abstract : 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Principles and operation of drum dryers 4.3 Modelling and simulation of drum drying 4.4 Drum drying technology 4.5 Conclusion 4.6 Sources of further information and advice Chapter 5: Modelling crystallization in spray drying for food powder production Abstract: 5.1 Introduction 5.2 The spray-drying process 5.3 Principles of crystallization: Williams-Landel-Ferry (WLF) equation and explaining solid-phase crystallization during spray-drying process 5.4 Techniques and applications: comparing the relative degree of crystallinity of spray-dried powders using mathematical model 5.5 Limitations of the solid-phase crystallization model 5.6 Conclusions and future trends Chapter 6: Grinding for food powder production Abstract: 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Principles of grinding and modelling 6.3 Grinding technologies and equipments 6.4 Applications of grinding in the production of food powders 6.5 Limitations 6.6 Alternation drying and grinding (ADG) in powder technology 6.7 Conclusion and future trends 6.9 Appendix: nomenclature Chapter 7: Agglomeration/granulation in food powder production Abstract: 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Powder characteristics 7.3 Physicochemical reactivity of food powders 7.4 Agglomeration processes and mechanisms 7.5 Wet controlled growth agglomeration technologies 7.6 Wet agglomeration mechanisms and powder reactivity 7.7 Conclusion Chapter 8: Fluidization in food powder production Abstract: 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Principles of fluidization 8.3 Techniques and equipment 8.4 Applications of fluidization in the production of food powders 8.5 Limitations 8.6 Conclusion and future trends 8.7 Sources of further information and advice 8.9 Appendix: nomenclature Chapter 9: Powder mixing in the production of food powders Abstract: 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Mixture quality: defining and assessing 9.3 Mixing processes and mechanisms 9.4 Mixing devices 9.5 Some elements for powder-mixer calculation and scale-up 9.6 Conclusion and future trends Chapter 10: Handling of food powders: flow patterns and storage design Abstract: 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Basic flow patterns in storage vessels 10.3 Storage vessel design 10.4 Mass-flow operation 10.5 The Jenike silo design method 10.6 The flow-no flow criterion 10.7 Silo design worked example 10.8 Conclusion 10.10 Appendices 10.10.2 Appendix B: indicative bulk characteristics for a limited range of food powders 10.10.3 Appendix C: nomenclature Chapter 11: Ensuring process safety in food powder production: the risk of dust explosion Abstract: 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Dust explosion hazards 11.3 Laboratory testing to assess explosion characteristics of dust clouds 11.4 Safety from dust cloud explosion hazards 11.5 Specific unit operations 11.6 Conclusion 11.7 Sources of further information and advice Part II: Powder properties Chapter 12: Powder properties in food production systems Abstract: 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Sampling, moisture content and chemical composition 12.3 Particle properties 12.4 Bulk properties of powders 12.5 Conclusion 12.6 Future trends Chapter 13: Techniques to analyse particle size of food powders Abstract: 13.1 Introduction 13.2 The importance of particle size of food powders 13.3 Collecting data for particle size analysis 13.4 Presenting particle size analysis data 13.5 Powder sampling and techniques for particle size analysis 13.6 Particle size analysis by direct methods 13.7 Particle size analysis by classification methods 13.8 Particle size analysis by secondary methods 13.9 Continuous and in-line measurements 13.10 Conclusion Chapter 14: Surface composition of food powders Abstract: 14.1 Introduction 14.2 Microscopy techniques for analyzing the surface of food powders 14.3 Spectroscopy techniques for analyzing the surface of food powders 14.4 Surface sorption and extraction techniques for analyzing the surface of food powders 14.5 Factors affecting food powder surface composition 14.6 Impact of powder surface composition on powder functionality 14.7 Food industry examples 14.8 Conclusion 14.9 Future trends 14.11 Appendix: abbreviations Chapter 15: Food powder rehydration Abstract: 15.1 Introduction 15.2 Principles of powder rehydration: wettability and sinkability 15.3 Principles of powder rehydration: dispersibility 15.4 Principles of powder rehydration: solubility 15.5 Improving powder rehydration properties 15.6 Conclusion Chapter 16: Shelf-life of food powders Abstract: 16.1 Introduction 16.2 Water absorption and desorption of food powders 16.3 Crystallization of amorphous powder 16.4 Oxidative changes 16.5 Effect of Maillard reactions on food products 16.6 Survival of dried probiotic bacteria 16.7 Conclusion 16.8 Sources of further information and advice 16.9 Acknowledgements Part III: Speciality food powders Chapter 17: Dairy powders Abstract: 17.1 Introduction 17.2 Bulk production of dairy powders 17.3 Physical properties and qualities of dairy powders 17.4 Physicochemical properties and qualities of dairy powders 17.5 Applications of dairy powders 17.6 Factors affecting the properties of milk, whey and derivative powders 17.7 Control and improvement of powder properties 17.8 Conclusion Chapter 18: Infant formula powders Abstract: 18.1 Introduction 18.2 Global infant formula market 18.3 Nutritional composition 18.4 Classification of infant formula 18.5 Production of powdered infant formula 18.6 Conclusion 18.7 Future trends Chapter 19: Powdered egg Abstract: 19.1 Introduction 19.2 Production of egg powders: types and process 19.3 Drying technologies for egg powder production 19.4 Factors affecting the functionality of egg powders 19.5 Applications in the food and beverage industries 19.6 Conclusion Chapter 20: Tea and coffee powders Abstract: 20.1 Introduction 20.2 Factors affecting quality of instant coffee powder 20.3 Instant coffee production 20.4 Health effects of instant coffee powder 20.5 Instant tea powder production 20.6 Health effects of instant tea powder 20.7 Typical tea powder products 20.8 Conclusion Chapter 21: Fruit and vegetable powders Abstract: 21.1 Introduction 21.2 Fruit/vegetable powders and related products 21.3 Technologies for fruit and vegetable powder production 21.4 Grinding or pulverization 21.5 Storage 21.6 Conclusion Chapter 22: Rice flour and related products Abstract: 22.1 Introduction 22.2 Rice flour processing 22.3 Chemical composition and nutritional properties of rice flour 22.4 Physicochemical properties of rice flour 22.5 Modifications of rice flour 22.6 Conclusion Chapter 23: Culinary powders and speciality products Abstract: 23.1 Introduction 23.2 Herbs and spices 23.3 Soup powders 23.4 Salts 23.5 Safety of culinary powders 23.6 Conclusion Chapter 24: Powders containing microorganisms and enzymes Abstract: 24.1 Introduction 24.2 Drying of bacterial cultures 24.3 Preservation of yeasts and enzymes 24.4 Spray drying of lactic acid bacteria 24.5 Single droplet drying 24.6 Mechanisms of bacterial death and survival in the drying process 24.7 Bacterial survival during storage 24.8 Modelling of drying and survival kinetics 24.10 Future trends 24.11 Sources of further information and advice Chapter 25: Coating foods with powders Abstract: 25.1 Introduction 25.2 Types of powders used as food coatings 25.3 Principles and equipment for coating foods with powders 25.4 Difficulties caused by powder coating and ways to resolve them 25.5 Conclusion 25.6 Sources of further information and advice Index

About the Author

Professor Bhesh Bhandari has been associated with the University of Queensland for the last 25 years. His research and teaching areas include food materials science, processing, physical and engineering properties of foods and recently 3D printing of foods. Professor Bhandari has published five co-edited books and more than 350 book chapters and research papers. His publications have been cited nearly 14,000 times (2018), and he is recognised as one of the leading researchers in glass transition and encapsulation technologies in the food science discipline. Professor Bhandari was listed as a highly cited researcher in his discipline in 2015 by Thomson Reuters. He has recently patented two significant technologies, a continuous microgel particle formation device for encapsulation of food and pharmaceuticals and a technology to produce ethylene powder by applying materials science approach. Nidhi Bansal has been working at the University of Queensland for the last 8 years in the field of Dairy Science and Technology. Currently, she is advising 13 PhD students. Nine of her students completed their PhDs from 2013-15. In addition to her research publications in the field, Dr. Bansal has also co-edited the book Handbook of Food Powders: Processes and Properties (Woodhead Publishing, Elsevier) and contributed a book chapter on "Functional Milk Proteins: Production and Utilization. Whey-Based Ingredients" in Advanced Dairy Chemistry-1B, Proteins: Applied Aspects. Professor Min Zhang works at the School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, China. Dr Pierre Schuck is a researcher at INRA, France.


"Chemical and biological engineers describe different processes that are involved in producing food powders, their further processing, and the functional properties of the powders. Among their topics are spray drying, roller and drum drying, grinding, powder mixing, flow patterns and storage design in handling food powders, the risk of dust explosion,..."--ProtoView.com, March 2014

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