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Handbook of Safety Principles
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Table of Contents

Preface xxv List of Contributors xxvii 1 Introduction 1 Niklas Moeller, Sven Ove Hansson, Jan-Erik Holmberg, and Carl Rollenhagen 1.1 Competition, Overlap, and Conflicts 1 1.2 A New Level in the Study of Safety Principles 2 1.3 Metaprinciples of Safety 3 1.4 Other Ways to Characterize Safety Principles 5 1.5 Conflicts Between Safety Principles 7 1.6 When Can Safety Principles Be Broken? 8 1.7 Safety in Context 9 References 10 2 Preview 11 Niklas Moeller, Sven Ove Hansson, Jan-Erik Holmberg, and Carl Rollenhagen 2.1 Part I: Safety Reserves 12 2.2 Part II: Information and Control 13 2.3 Part III: Demonstrability 16 2.4 Part IV: Optimization 17 2.5 Part V: Organizational Principles and Practices 20 Part I Safety Reserves 23 3 Resilience Engineering and the Future of Safety Management 25 Erik Hollnagel 3.1 On the Origins of Resilience 25 3.2 The Resilience Engineering Understanding of "Resilience" 27 3.3 The Four Potentials for Resilience Performance 29 3.4 Safety Management Systems 31 3.5 Developing Definitions of Resilience 33 3.6 Managing the Potentials for Resilient Performance 34 3.7 Resilience Management: LP-HI OR HP-LI? 37 References 39 4 Defense-In-Depth 42 Jan-Erik Holmberg 4.1 Introduction 42 4.2 Underlying Theory and Theoretical Assumptions 43 4.3 Redundancy, Diversity, and Separation Principles 44 4.4 Use and Implementation 53 4.5 Empirical Research on use and Efficiency 57 4.6 Weaknesses, Limitations, and Criticism 57 4.7 Relations to Other Safety Principles 59 References 60 Further Reading 61 5 Safety Barriers 63 Lars Harms-Ringdahl and Carl Rollenhagen 5.1 Introduction 63 5.2 Origin and Theoretical Background 65 5.3 Definitions and Terminology 67 5.4 Classification of Barriers 71 5.5 Methods for Analysis of Safety Barriers 75 5.6 Quality and Efficiency of Barriers 79 5.7 Discussion and Conclusions 82 References 84 6 Factors and Margins of Safety 87 Neelke Doorn and Sven Ove Hansson 6.1 Introduction 87 6.2 Origin and History 91 6.3 Definitions and Terminology 92 6.4 Underlying Theory and Theoretical Assumptions 94 6.5 Use and Implementation 98 6.6 Empirical Research on Use and Efficiency 101 6.7 Weaknesses, Limitations, and Criticism 103 6.8 Relations to Other Safety Principles 105 Acknowledgment 108 References 108 Further Reading 114 Part II Information and Control 115 7 Experience Feedback 117 Urban Kjellen 7.1 Introduction 117 7.2 Origin and History 118 7.3 Definitions 121 7.4 Underlying Theories and Assumptions 122 7.5 Use and Implementation 127 7.6 Empirical Research on Use and Efficiency 135 7.7 Relations to Other Safety Principles 137 References 138 Further Reading 141 8 Risk and Safety Indicators 142 Drew Rae 8.1 Introduction 142 8.2 Origin and History 143 8.3 Definitions and Terminology 145 8.4 Underlying Theory and Theoretical Assumptions 146 8.5 Use and Implementation 152 8.6 Empirical Research on Use and Efficacy 154 8.7 Weaknesses, Limitations, and Criticism 155 8.8 Relations to Other Safety Principles 158 References 159 9 Principles of Human Factors Engineering 164 Leena Norros and Paula Savioja 9.1 Introduction 164 9.2 Principle 1: HFE is Design Thinking 167 9.3 Principle 2: HFE Studies Human as a Manifold Entity 172 9.4 Principle 3: HFE Focuses on Technology in Use 177 9.5 Principle 4: Safety is Achieved Through Continuous HFE 182 9.6 Relation to Other Safety Principles 187 9.7 Limitations 188 9.8 Conclusions 189 References 190 Further Reading 195 10 Safety Automation 196 Bjoern Wahlstroem 10.1 Introduction 196 10.2 Origin and History 201 10.3 Definitions and Terminology 205 10.4 Underlying Theories and Assumptions 211 10.5 Use and Implementation 215 10.6 Research on Use and Efficiency 220 10.7 Weaknesses, Limitations, and Criticism 222 10.8 Relations to Other Safety Principles 225 10.9 Summary and Conclusions 228 References 229 11 Risk Communication 235 Jan M. Gutteling 11.1 Introduction 235 11.2 The Origin and History of Risk Communication as Academic Field 238 11.3 Underlying Assumptions, Concepts and Empirical Data on Risk Communication Models 241 11.4 Weaknesses, Limitations, and Criticism 250 11.5 Final Word 252 References 252 Further Reading 257 12 The Precautionary Principle 258 Sven Ove Hansson 12.1 Introduction 258 12.2 History and Current Use 259 12.3 Definitions 263 12.4 Underlying Theory 267 12.5 Research on Use and Efficiency 271 12.6 Weaknesses, Limitations, and Criticism 271 12.7 Relation to Expected Utility and Probabilistic Risk Assessment 273 12.8 Relations to Other Safety Principles 276 Acknowledgment 279 References 279 Further Reading 283 13 Operating Procedure 284 Jinkyun Park 13.1 Introduction 284 13.2 Manual, Guideline, and Procedure 286 13.3 Existing Principles for Developing a Good Procedure 288 13.4 Additional Principle to Develop a Good Procedure 292 13.5 Concluding Remarks 299 References 301 Further Reading 304 14 Human-Machine System 305 Anna-Lisa Osvalder and Hakan Alm 14.1 Human-Machine System 306 14.2 Complex Systems 307 14.3 To Control a Complex System 307 14.4 Operator Demands 308 14.5 Performance-Shaping Factors 313 14.6 User Interface Design 315 14.7 Demands on the Environment 322 14.8 Handling Complexity 327 References 329 Part III Demonstrability 331 15 Quality Principles and Their Applications To Safety 333 Bo Bergman 15.1 Introduction 333 15.2 Improvement Knowledge and its Application to Safety 338 15.3 Health-Care Improvement and Patient Safety 349 15.4 Weaknesses, Limitations, and Criticism 351 15.5 Some Personal Experiences 352 15.6 Relations to Other Safety Principles 353 References 355 Further Reading 360 16 Safety Cases 361 Tim Kelly 16.1 Introduction 361 16.2 Origins and History 361 16.3 Definitions and Terminology 364 16.4 Underlying Theory 367 16.5 Empirical Research on Use and Efficiency 377 16.6 Weaknesses, Limitations, and Criticisms 377 16.7 Relationship to Other Principles 382 References 383 Further Reading 385 17 Inherently Safe Design 386 Rajagopalan Srinivasan and Mohd Umair Iqbal 17.1 Introduction 386 17.2 Origin and History of the Principle 387 17.3 Definitions and Terminology 388 17.4 Use and Implementation 389 17.5 Empirical Research on Use and Efficiency 392 17.6 Weaknesses, Limitation, and Criticism 393 17.7 Relation to Other Principles 394 References 394 18 Maintenance, Maintainability, and Inspectability 397 Torbjoern Ylipaa, Anders Skoogh, and Jon Bokrantz 18.1 Introduction 397 18.2 Origin and History 399 18.3 Underlying Theory, Theoretical Assumptions, Definition, and Terminology 400 18.4 Use and Implementation 405 18.5 Empirical Research on Use and Efficiency 408 18.6 Weaknesses, Limitations, and Criticism 409 18.7 Relations to Other Safety Principles 410 References 410 Further Reading 413 Part IV Optimization 415 19 On the Risk-Informed Regulation for the Safety Against External Hazards 417 Pieter van Gelder 19.1 Introduction 417 19.2 Risk-Regulation in Safety Against Environmental Risks 421 19.3 Dealing with Uncertainties in Risk-Informed Regulation 422 19.4 Limitations of the Current Risk Measures 424 19.5 Spatial Risk 426 19.6 Temporal Risk 429 19.7 Conclusions and Recommendations 431 Acknowledgment 432 References 432 20 Quantitative Risk Analysis 434 Jan-Erik Holmberg 20.1 Introduction 434 20.2 Origin and History 435 20.3 Underlying Theory and Theoretical Assumptions 438 20.4 Use and Implementation 449 20.5 Empirical Research on Use and Efficiency 456 20.6 Weaknesses, Limitations, and Criticism 456 20.7 Relations to Other Safety Principles 458 References 458 Further Reading 460 21 Qualitative Risk Analysis 463 Risto Tiusanen 21.1 Introduction 463 21.2 Origin and History of the Principle 464 21.3 Definitions 465 21.4 Underlying Theory and Theoretical Assumptions 466 21.5 Use and Implementation 471 21.6 Strengths, Weaknesses, Limitations and Criticism 480 21.7 Experiences of Preliminary Hazard Identification Methods 482 21.8 Experiences of Hazop Studies 482 21.9 Experiences of Risk Estimation Methods 483 21.10 Summary of Strengths and Limitations 484 21.11 Experiences from Complex Machinery Applications 484 21.12 Relations to Other Safety Principles 491 References 491 22 Principles and Limitations of Cost-Benefit Analysis for Safety Investments 493 Genserik Reniers and Luca Talarico 22.1 Introduction 493 22.2 Principles of Cost-Benefit Analysis 495 22.3 CBA Methodologies 497 22.4 Conclusions 511 References 512 23 Rams Optimization Principles 514 Yan-Fu Li and Enrico Zio List of Acronyms 514 23.1 Introduction to Reliability, Availability, Maintainability, and Safety (RAMS) Optimization 515 23.2 Multi-Objective Optimization 516 23.3 Solution Methods 519 23.4 Performance Measures 523 23.5 Selection of Preferred Solutions 524 23.6 Guidelines for Implementation and Use 525 23.7 Numerical Case Study 527 23.8 Discussion 536 23.9 Relations to Other Principles 536 References 537 Further Reading 539 24 Maintenance Optimization and Its Relation to Safety 540 Roger Flage 24.1 Introduction 540 24.2 Related Principles and Terms 541 24.3 Maintenance Optimization 547 24.4 Discussion and Conclusions 556 Further Reading 559 References 561 25 Human Reliability Analysis 565 Luca Podofillini 25.1 Introduction with Examples 565 25.2 Origin and History of the Principle 569 25.3 Underlying Theory and Theoretical Assumptions 572 25.4 Use and Implementation 576 25.5 Empirical Research on Use and Efficiency 578 25.6 Weaknesses, Limitations, and Criticism 583 25.7 Relationship with Other Principles 585 References 586 26 Alara, Bat, and the Substitution Principle 593 Sven Ove Hansson 26.1 Introduction 593 26.2 Alara 594 26.3 Best Available Technology 601 26.4 The Substitution Principle 606 26.5 Comparative Discussion 615 Acknowledgment 618 References 618 Further Reading 624 Part V Organizational Principles and Practices 625 27 Safety Management Principles 627 Gudela Grote 27.1 Introduction 627 27.2 Origin and History of the Principle 629 27.3 Definitions 629 27.4 Underlying Theory and Theoretical Assumptions 630 27.5 Use and Implementation 633 27.6 Empirical Research on Use and Efficiency 634 27.7 Weaknesses, Limitations, and Criticism 640 27.8 Relations to Other Safety Principles 642 References 642 Further Reading 646 28 Safety Culture 647 Teemu Reiman and Carl Rollenhagen 28.1 Introduction 647 28.2 Origin and History 652 28.3 Definitions and Terminology 656 28.4 Underlying Theory and Theoretical Assumptions 658 28.5 Empirical Research 662 28.6 Use and Implementation 663 28.7 Weaknesses and Critique 667 28.8 Main Messages and What the Concept Tells About Safety 670 References 671 29 Principles of Behavior-Based Safety 677 Steve Roberts and E. Scott Geller 29.1 Introduction 677 29.2 Origin and History of BBS 678 29.3 Leadership 680 29.4 Physical Environment/Conditions 683 29.5 Systems 683 29.6 Behaviors 689 29.7 Employee Involvement and Ownership 695 29.8 Person States 699 29.9 The Benefits of Behavior-Based Safety 701 29.10 Weaknesses, Limitations, and Criticisms 703 29.11 Relationship with Other Principles 705 References 707 Further Reading 710 30 Principles of Emergency Plans and Crisis Management 711 Ann Enander 30.1 Introduction 711 30.2 Origin and History 716 30.3 Definitions and Terminology 717 30.4 Underlying Theory and Theoretical Assumptions 720 30.5 Use and Implementation 721 30.6 Empirical Research on Use and Efficiency 722 30.7 Weaknesses, Limitations, and Criticism 723 30.8 Relations to Other Safety Principles 725 References 726 Further Reading 731 31 Safety Standards: Chronic Challenges and Emerging Principles 732 Ibrahim Habli 31.1 Introduction 732 31.2 Definitions and Terminology 734 31.3 Organization of Safety Standards 734 31.4 Domain Specific Principles 736 31.5 Development of Standards 742 31.6 Rationale in Standards 743 31.7 Chapter Summary 744 References 744 Further Reading 746 32 Managing the Unexpected 747 Jean-Christophe Le Coze 32.1 Introduction 747 32.2 Defining the Unexpected 750 32.3 Thirty Years of Research on the Unexpected 754 32.4 Managing the Unexpected 766 32.5 Relation to Other Principles: Further Reading 771 32.6 Conclusion 772 References 772 Index 777

About the Author

NIKLAS MOELLER, PhD, is Associate Professor at the Royal Institute of Technology in Sweden. The author of approximately 20 international journal articles, Dr. Moeller's research interests include the philosophy of risk, metaethics, philosophy of science, and epistemology. SVEN OVE HANSSON, PhD, is Professor of Philosophy at the Royal Institute of Technology. He has authored over 300 articles in international journals and is a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences. Dr. Hansson is also a Topical Editor for the Wiley Encyclopedia of Operations Research and Management Science. JAN-ERIK HOLMBERG, PhD, is Senior Consultant at Risk Pilot AB and Adjunct Professor of Probabilistic Risk and Safety Analysis at the Royal Institute of Technology. Dr. Holmberg received his PhD in Applied Mathematics from Helsinki University of Technology in 1997. CARL ROLLENHAGEN, PhD, is Adjunct Professor of Risk and Safety at the Royal Institute of Technology. Dr. Rollenhagen has performed extensive research in the field of human factors and MTO (Man, Technology, and Organization) with a specific emphasis on safety culture and climate, event investigation methods, and organizational safety assessment.

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